Educational Resource Group

Educational Resource Group

Basic EMT, Advanced EMT-Cardiac, AEMT/Cardiac-Paramedic, and Paramedic Training
AHA Training in all disciplines

Servicing Massachusetts and Rhode Island since 2003, we offer EMS Training at all levels, as well as First –Aid/CPR training at every level recognized by the American Heart Association.

Operating as usual

Myocardial Infarction and Ischemia: ECG changes 01/07/2024

Myocardial Infarction and Ischemia: ECG changes In this course, we define the term ‘acute coronary syndrome’. We explain the role and limitations of the ECG in the diagnosis of this syndrome. We expand your knowledge of the differential diagnosis of ST segment elevation and depression on the ECG.


If a snowstorm is heading to your area, have different ways to receive information:

- Sign up for alerts from your local U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) office.
- Download the FEMA mobile app to get safety tips.
- Check the Wireless Emergency Alert settings on your phone:


Prenatal circulation refers to the circulation of blood in a developing fetus before birth. During this time, the fetus relies on a unique set of circulatory pathways to receive oxygen and nutrients from the mother and eliminate waste products.

Let's break it down:

Oxygenation: In prenatal circulation, the fetus receives oxygen from the mother through the placenta. The placenta acts as a bridge between the maternal and fetal circulations, allowing for the exchange of oxygen and nutrients.

Umbilical Vein: The oxygenated blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus through the umbilical vein. This vein brings oxygen-rich blood to the fetal heart.

Ductus Venosus: To bypass the fetal liver, which is not fully functional during prenatal life, there is a structure called the ductus venosus. It allows oxygen-rich blood from the umbilical vein to bypass the liver and enter the inferior vena cava, which is a large vein that carries blood back to the heart.

Mixing of Blood: The inferior vena cava carries both oxygen-rich blood from the placenta and oxygen-poor blood from the fetal body. This mixing occurs in the right atrium of the fetal heart.

Foramen Ovale: To bypass the fetal lungs, which are filled with fluid and not yet functional, there is a small opening called the foramen ovale between the right and left atria of the fetal heart. This allows oxygen-rich blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium, bypassing the lungs.

Ductus Arteriosus: Another bypass pathway is the ductus arteriosus, which connects the pulmonary artery (leading to the lungs) to the aorta (the main artery carrying blood to the body). This allows oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to bypass the lungs and flow directly to the body.

Interpretation of PaO₂ & PaCO₂ on the ABG 01/05/2024

Interpretation of PaO₂ & PaCO₂ on the ABG In this course, you will learn how to interpret arterial oxygenation in the context of the A-a gradient. This will help you avoid serious clinical error. You will learn the meaning of the terms, type I and type II respiratory failure and hypoventilation.


Anatomy of an Asthma Attack
During an asthma attack air flow is mainly restricted in one direction. When the patient inhales, the expanding lungs exert an outward pull, increasing the diameter of the airway and allowing air to enter the lungs. During exhalation, however, the opposite occurs and the stale air becomes trapped in the lungs. This requires the patient to exhale the air forcefully, producing the wheezing sound associated with asthma.


Systole and diastole are two phases of the cardiac cycle, which is the sequence of events that occur during one heartbeat. Systole is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out of the heart and into the arteries. Diastole is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle relaxes and fills with blood from the veins.

Acid-Base Disorders: Identification and Causes 01/01/2024

Acid-Base Disorders: Identification and Causes In this course, we explain physiological concepts which will help you interpret acid-base disturbances detected on the ABG. We explain the clinical importance of calculation of the anion gap in the presence of a metabolic acidosis. We explain the link between extracellular fluid (ECF) electrolyte le...


Ketamine has come under scrutiny in relation to Elijah McClain’s tragic death. It’s essential to recognize that the drug itself and the dosage used were not the primary factors leading to this regrettable outcome. This tragic case compelled Dr. Antevy to create and send an email today called “Ketamine and Elijah McClain: Sorting Fact from Fiction with Real Evidence.”

Let’s spark a conversation that can change the future! Dive into our email and explore the included links and resources. Then, join us on social media to share your insights. Your voice matters in shaping the EMS profession, EMS Medical Direction, and ongoing patient care.


Subcutaneous emphysema is a condition in which air becomes trapped under the skin, usually as a result of an injury or medical procedure. The air can travel from the lungs or other parts of the respiratory system into the soft tissues of the neck, chest, or abdomen, causing swelling and a characteristic crackling sensation when the affected area is touched.
(like tiny bubble wrap popping under the surface of the skin)

Subcutaneous emphysema can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma to the chest or neck, medical procedures such as intubation or mechanical ventilation, or underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

Symptoms of subcutaneous emphysema may include swelling and tenderness in the affected area, a crackling sensation when the skin is touched, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as treating a lung infection or repairing a punctured lung, as well as managing symptoms such as pain and difficulty breathing


One of the most important parts of our job, but perhaps one of the least taught:

How to Give Feedback

We are excited to add this to our list of essential courses in 2023.

Ginger Locke explores the critical importance of giving to learners, as it is essential to the development of a learner’s skilled behavior. Giving feedback is like a medical procedure, with risks and benefits depending on how the feedback is delivered. She stresses the importance of a learner’s need to preserve their identity, the checklist a should use before giving feedback and the steps of the advocacy/inquiry model.

Check it out!


Einthoven's triangle is a concept in electrocardiography (ECG) that refers to the three limb leads that are used to record the heart's electrical activity.

The three limb leads of Einthoven's triangle are the standard bipolar leads, which are placed on the right arm, left arm, and left leg. By recording the electrical activity of the heart from these three points, the ECG machine can create a graphical representation of the heart's electrical activity, which can be used to diagnose various cardiac conditions.

Lead I looks from right upper extremity to the left upper extremity, allowing for a lateral view of the left ventricle and left atrium.

Lead II looks from the right upper extremity to the left lower extremity, allowing for an inferior view of the left and right ventricle.

Lead III looks from the left upper extremity to the left lower extremity and allows for an inferior view of the right and left ventricles


Wishing all of you the best!


Antiarrhythmic medications are used to treat arrhythmias. These medications work by affecting the electrical impulses that control the heart's rhythm. There are several classes of antiarrhythmic drugs, each with a different mechanism of action. For example, sodium channel blockers work by slowing the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart, while beta blockers work by blocking the effects of adrenaline on the heart.

Rhythm control medications work like a music conductor who keeps the orchestra in sync, ensuring that each instrument plays its part at the right time and in the right way. Similarly, rhythm control medications help to restore a normal heart rhythm and prevent irregular heartbeats.

Rate control medications, on the other hand, work like a traffic cop who slows down the flow of cars on a busy road. They help to slow down the heart rate and prevent it from beating too fast.


Peritonitis occurs when the peritoneum becomes inflamed, usually due to infection or bleeding. This inflammation can be caused by various factors, such as a rupture in the gastrointestinal tract, perforated appendix, or trauma to the abdomen.

The hallmark signs of peritonitis include abdominal pain, distention, rigidity, vomiting, and rebound tenderness. The abdomen may feel tender to the touch, and the patient may experience a decrease or absence of bowel sounds.


The cardiac conduction system is a network of specialized cells within the heart that generate and transmit electrical signals, allowing for coordinated contractions of the heart muscle. These electrical signals initiate in the sinoatrial (SA) node, often referred to as the heart's natural pacemaker.

From the SA node, the electrical signals spread through the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. The signals then travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node, which acts as a gateway, delaying the transmission of the signals to allow for proper filling of the ventricles.

After passing through the AV node, the electrical signals travel down the bundle of His, which divides into the left and right bundle branches. These branches then distribute the signals to the Purkinje fibers, which extend throughout the ventricles.

The Purkinje fibers rapidly transmit the electrical signals to the ventricular muscle cells, causing the ventricles to contract and pump blood out of the heart to the rest of the body

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Videos (show all)

Reviewing the use of ultrasound in class today……



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