Iranian Language Institute

Iranian Language Institute

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[05/01/14]   How and When to Pronounce 'R' in British English

The letter 'R' is often difficult to pronounce in British English and sometimes not pronounced at all.
Many students of English find it hard to pronounce British 'R'. When they have mastered the pronunciation, they discover that British 'R' is often a silent letter. The pronunciation of British English 'R' differs from American English in which all letters 'R' shown in the spelling are actually pronounced.
When studying pronunciation, you pay attention to what you hear not what you see. In other words, you must ignore the spelling. Only the sound is important.
Look at these three words: live – two – listen
• live has 4 letters when you see the spelling, and 3 sounds when you listen to the pronunciation; l – i –v
• two: 3 letters, 2 sounds
• listen: 6 letters, 5 sounds (some people pronounce only 4 sounds, they skip the sound in between t and n)
Another word for sound in this context is phoneme. I will use the word sound, but you are not studying phonetics. You just want to know how and when to pronounce 'R' in British English.
How to Pronounce R in English
The letter 'R' is a difficult letter to pronounce for many students of English. The Dutch and Germans pronounce the 'R' at the back of the throat. Spanish speakers roll their 'R'. There are as many different ways to pronounce 'R' as there are languages.
My Special Tip:
Treat the letter 'R' as a completely new sound, unconnected with the letter 'R' in your own language.
Pronunciation of English 'R'
1. Round your lips
2. Say zzzzz, lengthen the sound
3. Raise the tip of your tongue
4. Retract the tip a little
5. The result is the correct pronunciation of English R
When to Pronounce 'R' in British English
For most students of British English, it is difficult to remember not to pronounce every 'R' shown in the spelling. In American English and many country dialects in Britain ,the letter 'R' is pronounced whenever in dicated in the spelling.
In British English, 'R' is pronounced
1. before a vowel sound
2. never before a consonant
No 'R' in farm and far, but 'R' is pronounced in far away, because of the vowel sound in the next word
Rule for the pronunciation of British R
• Pronounce 'R' before a vowel sound in the same word
• red, rose, train, green, merit, theory
• Pronounce 'R' when it is the last sound (not letter) in a word followed by another word beginning with a vowel.
• here and there, a present for Anne
• In all other cases 'R' is a silent letter and not pronounced
• arm, learn, girl
You have now mastered the pronunciation of British 'R'.

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Nima

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Manager's  Resume 27/01/2014

Manager's Resume

Nima Shakouri
(PhD in Applied Linguistics)
[email protected]
Gender: Male
Date of Birth: February, 1976
Nationality: Iranian
Marital Status: Married
Contact
Telephone Number: 09801814249292
Address:
Iranian English Language Institute,
Motahari St.,
Anzali, Iran.
Email: [email protected]
Education
2011-date PhD in Applied Linguistics (TEFL)
IAU, Research and Science Campus, Tehran Branch, IRAN
2001-2004 MA in Applied Linguistics (TEFL)
IAU, Central Branch, Tehran
1995-1999 BA in English Literature
Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, IRAN
Teaching Experience
2006-present Full-time Faculty member of Islamic Azad University, Roudbar
Branch
Courses: Phonology, linguistics, methodology,…
Professional Experience
2006-present Director of IRANIAN English Language Institute, Anzali, Iran.
Published Books
[1] Shakouri, N. (2007).The study of words. Rasht: Katibe Gil
[2] Shakouri, N., & Taghizadeh, M. (2008).The study of language. Rasht: Katibe Gil
[3] Shakouri, N. (2008). Word power. Rasht: Katibe Gil
[4] Shakouri, N. (2009). Write right. Rasht: Katibe Gil
[5] Shakouri, N. (2010). Write right (2nded.).Rasht: Katibe Gil
[6] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghi, R. B. (2007). Read right. Rasht: Bloor
[7] Shakouri, N., & Ghorbani, Z. (2009). Better reading. Rasht: Katibe Gil
[8] Shakouri, N. (2013). A word on linguistics. Deutschland: Lambert Academic Publishing.
[9] Shakouri, N., Bahraminezhad, B., & Atarzadeh, R. (2013). Basics in language testing.
Deutschland: Lambert Academic Publishing.
[10] Shakouri, N., Chalabi, S., & Shakouri, Z. (2014). Language teaching: Brief-&-easy.
Deutschland: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Published Articles
[1] Birjandi, P., Shakouri, N.,& Melati, M. (2013). An attempt toward a tentative
complementary perspective in language acquisition: A panacea. World Applied Science
Journal, 28 (8), 1009-1015.
[2] Fahim, M., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Critical thinking in higher education: Pedagogical look.
Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7), 1370-1375.
[3] Fahim, M., Nili, M., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Globalization in foreign language teaching: A
pluralist perspective. International Journal of Academic Research, 3 (4), 25-35.
[4] Kahtib, M., & Shakouri, N. (2013) On situating the stance of socio-cognitve approach to
language acquisition. TPLS, 3(9), 1590-1595. Doi: 10.4304/tpls.3.9.1590-1595.
[5] Khatib, M., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Literature stance in developing critical thinking: A
pedagogical look. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning,
2(3), 23-28.
[6] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). Empiricist emergentism: A legitimate challenge to
nativist paradigm. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 15 (8), 1172-1177.Doi:
10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.8.11506.
[7] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). On the nature of interaction in SLA: A philosophical
stream. English Language Teaching, 6(9), 120-127.doi: 10.5539/elt.v6n9p120.
[8] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). On situating the stance of perennialism in the history
of curriculum development in Iran: A philosophical look. International Journal of
Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 3(4), 55-64.
[9] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). Minimalist approach in SLA. JLTR, 4(5), 1091-
1097.Doi:10.4304/jltr.4.5.1091-1097
[10] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2012). The relationship between learners’ beliefs system and
the choice of language learning strategies. International Journal of Research Studies in
Language Learning, 2(3), 23-28.
[11] Maftoon, P. & Shakouri, N. (2012). The concept of power in teacher talk. A critical look.
World academic Science Journal, 2 (1), 123-124.
[12] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Psycholinguistic approach to second language
acquisition. The International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics
World, 1 (1), 1-8.
[13] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Aestheticisim in the choice of theory. International
Journal of Academic Research, 3(1), 1-6
[14] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Grammar is not autonomous. British Journal of
science,7(2), 17-25.
[15] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2012). No implicit learning is possible without awareness! In
favor of noticing hypothesis. American Journal of Science, 8 (1), 56-63. .
[16] Maftoon, P., Shakouri, N., & Nazari, O. (2013). On situating the stance of practice in SLA.
IJALEL, 3(3), 14-19.]
[17] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). On the viability of action research in education.
International Journal of Research Studies in Education.
[18] Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). Paradigm shift in curriculum development in the third
millennium: A brief look at the philosophy of doubt. IJLLALW, 4(3), 303-312.
[19]. Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2013). Abductionism: An attempt to achieve symbiosis.
International Journal of Research Studies, 5 (1), 1-10.
[20] Shakouri, N. (2013). A qualitative study on the impact of students’ self-efficacy on their
ability to achieve speaking skills. Iranian ELT, 2(3), 345-365.
[21] Shakouri, N. S. (2012). Revitalization of emergentism in SLA. A panacea! IJALEL, 1(5),
14-19.]
[22] Shakouri, N. (2012). Constructing learner identity: A poststructuralist perspective.
Language in India, 12(2), 583-594.
[23] Shakouri, N. (2012). From method to post method: A panacea! English Language Teaching,
5(4), 65-73.
[24] Shakouri, N. (2012). Methods are not dead! Journal of comparative literature and culture,
1(1), 7-11.
[25] Shakouri, N. (2013). Teacher education: An attempt to empower teachers in Iran: A
panacea. Paper presented in International Teacher Education Conference held in Dubi
[26] Shakouri, N., & Bahraminezhadi, R. (2013). Adaptation: A conservative top-down
pedagogy. English for Specific Purposes World, 14 (40), 1-8.
[27] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2012). Autonomous learning: A teacher-less learning!
Paper presented in International Conference on new horizons in Education Inte, 2012,
Poland
[28] Shakouri, N. S., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2012). The secrecy underlying young language
learner’s learning. Paper presented in World Academy of Science, Engineering and
Technology 66, Paris
[29] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. (2013). Pedagogy: A pregnant term in the philosophy
of education. ELT Voices—India, 3 (3), 69-77.
[30] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. (2012). Classroom interaction: Betting a utopia.
International Journal of Academic Research, 4 (4), 32-37.
[31] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2012). Learner-centered instruction: A critical
perspective. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(6), 50-59.
[32] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2012). Needs analysis: ESP perspective on genre.
Journal of Education and Practice, 3(6), 60-70.
[33] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2012). Paradigm shift: A shift in the role of teacher
from vessel filler to a facilitator! A philosophical perspective. International Journal of
Academic Research, 4(4), 32-37.
[34] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2012). SLA: Concept of context in community. Theory
and Practice in language Studies, 2(5), 1003-1007.
[35] Shakouri, N., & Jooneghani, R. B. (2013). Pedagogy: A pregnant term in the philosophy of
education. ELT voices, 3 (3), 67-75.
[36] Shakouri, N., & Mehrgan, K. (2012). The impact of using flashcard on promoting the
vocabulary knowledge of university students. Journal of English Linguistics, 1, 2, 13-16.
[37] Shakouri, N., & Nazari, O. (2012). Towards humanizing ELT: A pedagogical look.
Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 10(11), 1-9.
[38] Shakouri, N., & Nazari, O. (2013). Neurolinguistics: A plausible paradigm in SLA. The
International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World.
[39] Shakouri, N., & Ronaghi, H. (2012). Critical pedagogy: An ignis Fatuus! Journal of
Science, 1(2), 21-25.
[40] Shakouri, N., & Salighe, M. (2012). Revising age and gender influence in second
language acquisition. Journal of English Linguistics, 1(1), 1-6
[41]
Workshops
[1] Material Development and Syllabus Design. (2007). A Workshop in Islamic Azad University,
Iran
[2] Statistics and SPSS. (2007). A Workshop in Islamic Azad University, Iran.
[3] Essay Writing in English. (2007). A Workshop in Islamic Azad University, Iran.
Honors
[1] Honored as Outstanding Researcher at Islamic Azad University, Roudbar Branch (2010).
[2] Honored as Outstanding Researcher at Islamic Azad University, Roudbar Branch (2009).
[3] Honored as the outstanding director at Iranian English Language Institute, Bandar Anzali,
(2010)
Fields of Interest
SLA, Theories of Language Acquisition, Philosophy of Language Learning, Critical Pedagogy,
Methodology

27/01/2014

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