The Zuku Review

The Zuku Review

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09/12/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Dec 8th, 2023

A herd of ewes has had an abortion storm in which 80% of animals are affected.

All stages of gestation are affected, and lambs that are born are very weak.

On the placentas, cotyledons have white foci of necrosis.

Which one of the following choices is the primary differential diagnosis?

A - Listeria monocytogenes
B - Histophilus ovis
C - Chlamydiosis
D - Toxoplasma gondii
E - Brucella

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1414

08/12/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Dec 7th, 2023

A two-year-old ewe is presented with a history of lethargy and weight loss.

Physical exam reveals the clinical sign (indicated by yellow arrow) seen below.

Which one of the following choices is the differential?

A - Haemonchus contortus
B - Chronic copper toxicosis
C - Caseous lymphadenitis
D - Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
E - Moniezia expansa

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1412

07/12/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Dec 6th, 2023

What types of disease processes are typically associated with increases in the leukoctye indicated in this image of a blood smear?

(This image happens to be from a horse, but the mechanisms are similar across species).

A - Parasitic and allergic issues
B - Neoplasia and immune mediated illness
C - Hemolytic diseases
D - Fungal or bacterial sepsis
E - Viral infection

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1413

06/12/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Dec 5th, 2023

A pale-colored Egyptian Arabian foal is presented for evaluation within a few hours of a dystocia with assisted vaginal delivery.

The foal has opisthotonos, nystagmus, limb rigidity and paddling, and has not yet stood and nursed.

What is the presumptive diagnosis based on the information available?
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1402

A - Botulism
B - Overo lethal white condition
C - Lavender foal syndrome
D - Myasthenia gravis
E - Portosystemic vascular anomaly

04/12/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Monday, Dec 4th, 2023

Which are the clinical signs of aflatoxin toxicity in pigs?

A - Agalactia and dry gangrene
B - Anorexia, ascites, and icterus
C - Polyuria/polydipsia with pale firm kidneys
D - Pulmonary edema
E - Sudden mass mortality

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1403

02/12/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Dec 1st, 2023

A horse is presented in severe respiratory distress in southern California after a suspected snake bite. There is significant nasal swelling (see below), flared nostrils, abdominal movement with each breath, stridor, and tachypnea.

Aside from local tissue damage and associated upper airway obstruction, what is another major complication of crotalid envenomation?

A - Chronic visual impairment
B - Acute hepatic necrosis
C - Coagulopathy
D - Immune suppression
E - Diarrhea

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1401

Photos from The Zuku Review's post 28/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Nov 28th, 2023

A client who raises North American farmed deer and elk asks you to remove of the entire soft antler of several animals in the first 55-65 days of growth, a practice called "velveting."

What should you tell the client?

Lat ch

Lat ch

A - Velveting is unwarranted; velvet falls off on its own after two to three months
B - Velveting is unnecessary; antlers fall off on their own at the end of mating season
C - Velvet antler removal is painless, but adequate restraint is very important to minimize stress in captive-raised cervids
D - You can perform the procedure with proper analgesia
E - The practice is illegal and sale of velvet antlers is internationally banned

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1396

28/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Monday, Nov 27th, 2023

A birnavirus causes which one of these avian diseases?

A - Infectious laryngotracheitis
B - Infectious bursal disease
C - Marek's disease
D - Newcastle disease
E - Infectious bronchitis

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1385

25/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Nov 24th, 2023

A 15-year-old Quarter horse mare is presented for right front lameness grade 3/5 on the AAEP lameness scale (lameness consistently visible at the trot). She becomes sound after an abaxial nerve block.

Radiographs of the distal limb look are shown below.

What is the common name for the top differential diagnosis?

image

A - High ringbone
B - Chronic proliferative synovitis
C - Spavin
D - Pedal osteitis
E - Exostosis of the second metacarpal
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1384

24/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Nov 23rd, 2023

A horse presents with distal limb edema in all 4 limbs (as seen below), petechiae of the mucous membranes, depression, and a low-grade fever of 101.9°F/38.8°C (N = 99-101°F, 37.2-38.3°C). Multiple horses in the stable recently suffered from an upper respiratory infection of undiagnosed etiology.

Which type of immune reaction is most likely responsible for the vasculitis in this horse?

A - Cell-mediated immune reactions (type IV)
B - None of these
C - Antigen-antibody complex (type III)
D - Antibody-mediated cytotoxic reactions (type II)
E - Immediate hypersensitivity and atopy (type I)

Click below to answer:

https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1383

22/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Nov 22nd, 2023

A seven-week-old pot-bellied pig is presented with a soft swelling ventral to the a**s, between the hind limbs.

Which one of the following is the most likely clinical diagnosis?

A - Intersex syndrome
B - Cryptorchidism
C - Inguinal hernia
D - Testicular torsion
E - Perineal hernia

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1382

Photos from The Zuku Review's post 21/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Nov 21st, 2023

A herd of 25 Holstein heifers present with fever of 104-106°F (40-41.1°C) [N=100-102.5°F, 37.8-39.7°C], lethargy, and purulent nasal discharge.

They also have loud, harsh coughs.

Physical exam reveals crackles over the trachea, but not the lungs.

Fibrinonecrotic plaques are randomly dispersed over the nasal and ocular mucosa, but there are no oral ulcers.

Urine and f***s appear normal.

Several affected heifers have an arched back and are straining because of a fibrinonecrotic vaginitis.

Which choice is the most important step to take next to evaluate and prevent this problem in the future?

A - Review infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccination protocols
B - Check for elevated mycotoxin levels in feed, particularly zearalonone due to Fusarium spp.
C - Perform vaginal cultures for ge***al Campylobacter fetus venerealis
D - Test water for Leptospira serovars; Check feed for f***l contamination by dogs with Neospora caninum
E - Evaluate breeding program; Consider 100% artificial insemination or use of Tritrichomonas foetus-negative bulls

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1381

17/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Nov 17th, 2023

What do the blue arrows indicate in the lower incisors of this horse?

A - Stars
B - Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH)
C - Cups
D - Galvanyne’s groove
E - Cavities

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1369

Photos from The Zuku Review's post 17/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Nov 16th, 2023

Where is the location of the main lesion in this cat?
(Click the images to enlarge)

A - Pulmonary vessels
B - Mediastinum
C - Trachea and mainstem bronchi
D - Rib and body wall
E - Lung parenchyma
Click below to enlarge images and to answer the question:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1368

16/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Nov 15th, 2023

A dead goat is presented to a veterinarian in the Caribbean.

The farmer reports that the goat hadn?t been eating well yesterday, then this morning was breathing hard and walking with a strange high-stepping gait.
She eventually went down and started paddling with her head twisted back just before death.

Necropsy reveals the following finding (blue arrow) adjacent to the heart:
He is worried about his other goats.

What vector is responsible for transmitting the infectious agent most likely responsible for this goat?s condition?

A - Musca autumnalis (the face fly)
B - Damalinia caprae lice
C - Amblyomma spp. ticks
D - Tabanids (e.g., the horse fly)
E - Dermacentor spp. ticks

Click below to answer:

https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1367

15/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Nov 14th, 2023

Cytological evaluation of a blood smear from a sick horse reveals the following (see below).

Which constellation of signs would you expect in a typical acute case of a horse with this disease?



A - Nystagmus, head tilt, strabismus
B - Limb edema, ventricular arrhythmias, ataxia
C - Fever, petechiations, hemolytic anemia
D - Weight loss, partial anorexia, poor performance
E - Elevated serum liver enzymes, hyperammonemia, head-pressing
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1366

13/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Monday, Nov 13th, 2023

A nine-year-old Quarterhorse mare is presented with a right hind limb lameness.

She tends to drag the right toe, and has a stabbing gait in that limb (adducts hindlimb, then suddenly abducts it just before the hoof hits the ground).

Hock flexion of the right hind significantly exacerbates the lameness for 5-6 strides. A radiograph of the hock is taken, shown below.

What is the common name for this problem?

A - Osselets
B - Bone spavin
C - Tarsal hydrarthrosis
D - Splints
E - Ringbone
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1355

10/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Nov 10th, 2023

A two-year-old beagle is presented with patchy alopecia, papules, and thick crusts, on the ventral abdomen, chest, ears, and elbows.

The owner reports intense pruritus and a positive pinnal-pedal reflex is observed.

A flea comb does not reveal any fleas.

The image below shows what was discovered from a skin scraping.

Which one of the following organisms is depicted in the image?

A - Straelensia cynotis
B - Cheyletiella yasguri
C - Sarcoptes scabei
D - Demodex canis
E - Neotrombicula autumnalis

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1354

10/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Nov 9th, 2023

A four-month-old filly is presented with a four-day history of lethargy, heavy breathing, cough and decreased appetite.

Value.....................................Normal
104.9°F (40.5°C).........99.0–100.6°F (37.2–38.1°C)
HR=72 bpm................28-40 bpm
R=44 brpm.................10-14 brpm
On lung auscultation asymmetrically-distributed crackles and wheezes are audible. Some areas have no breath sounds and a dull resonance on thoracic percussion. A lateral chest radiograph shows consolidated nodular lung lesions and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

Pneumonia due to Rhodococcus equi infection is confirmed based on culture and polymerase chain reaction results on a transtracheal wash.

Which one of following choices is the most appropriate treatment?

A - Vancomycin and atropine (if bronchospasm is observed)
B - Chloramphenicol and aminophylline
C - Procaine penicillin G and gentamicin
D - Clarithromycin and rifampin
E - Tilmicosin
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1353

08/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Nov 8th, 2023

Which species has ellipsoid erythrocytes that lack central pallor?

A - Chinchillas
B - Camelids
C - Psittacines
D - Ferrets
E - Reptiles
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1352

08/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Nov 7th, 2023

For the last ten years, your state has had a mandatory vaccination program against "pedunculated giblet disease" in fur-bearing turtles and the prevalence of this terrible disease has decreased markedly.

How does this decrease in prevalence affect the predictive value positive (PVP) of the best serologic test for pedunculated giblet disease?

A - PVP depends on the number tested, not prevalence
B - PVP is affected by specificity, not prevalence
C - PVP stays the same as prevalence decreases
D - PVP increases as prevalence decreases
E - PVP decreases as prevalence decreases

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1351

04/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Nov 3rd, 2023

An eight-month-old male intact German shepherd dog is presented for poor weight gain, chronic diarrhea, and polyphagia.

Fasting serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) measurement is

03/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Nov 2nd, 2023

Retained placenta and metritis can predispose to which one of the following secondary conditions in horses?

A - Cystic endometriosis
B - Colic
C - Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome
D - Contagious equine metritis
E - Laminitis
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1348

02/11/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Nov 1st, 2023

A flock from a turkey farm is presented with a mysterious illness. Several dead birds are notable, mostly younger animals.

Sick turkeys are listless, with drooping wings, unkempt feathers, yellow droppings. Sick older birds are emaciated.

Necropsy shows a yellowish green, caseous exudate in the ceca, cecal ulcerations, and thickening of the cecal wall. A typical liver looks like the image below.

What is the diagnosis?

image

A - Necrotic enteritis
B - Coronaviral enteritis of turkeys
C - Avian spirochetosis
D - Histomoniasis
E - Hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1347

31/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Oct 31st, 2023

When a foal is being treated with erythromycin (for Rhodococcus equi, for example), the mare is at risk of developing enterocolitis due to which one of the following organisms?

A - Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile)
B - Lawsonia intracellularis (a.k.a. proliferative enteropathy)
C - Clostridium novyi
D - Escherichia coli
E - Rhodococcus equi
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1346

30/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Monday, Oct 30th, 2023

What does this finding mean in a cat?

image

A - Nasopharyngeal polyp, cat will be fine after surgical removal
B - It is an intact male
C - Female in estrus
D - Cuterebra infestation
E - Lingual polyp, can remove, but recurrence is common
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1335

26/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Oct 26th, 2023

A stray dog is presented after being hit by a car.

The dog has hypotonic forelimbs and spastic paresis in the hinds.

All four limbs have proprioceptive deficits and sensation loss-signs are worse in the forelimbs.

Where is the lesion?

A - Cannot say without cutaneous trunci reflex results
B - Thoracolumbar T3-L3
C - Lumbosacral L4-S3
D - Cervicothoracic: C6-T2
E - Cranial cervical: C1-C5

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1333

26/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Oct 25th, 2023

One description of a typical heart sound is "lub-dub."

What makes the first heart sound (S1) (i.e., the "lub")?

A - Aortic and pulmonic valves shut and the mitral and tricuspid valves open
B - End of rapid ventricular filling period
C - Rapid atrial and auricular expansion due to cranial and caudal vena cavae contraction
D - Atrial contraction
E - Closure of atrioventricular valves, opening of semilunar valves
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1332

23/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Monday, Oct 23rd, 2023

A one-year-old female spayed German Shepherd is presented for a two-week history of lameness.

Although the dog limps on the right foreleg as it enters the exam room, the owner reports that the dog was lame on the left hindleg last week.

On physical exam, the dog reacts painfully on palpation of the long bones of the right foreleg.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Value...............................................Normal
99.8°F (37.7°C).....................99.5-102.5°F (37.2-39.2°C)
HR=100 bpm...............................80-120
RR=24 brpm................................15-34

A - Osteosarcoma
B - Multiple cartilaginous exostoses
C - Panosteitis
D - Hypertrophic osteodystrophy
E - Hypertrophic osteopathy
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1320

21/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Friday, Oct 20th, 2023

A herd of ewes has had an abortion storm in which 80% of animals are affected.

All stages of gestation are affected, and lambs that are born are very weak.

On the placentas, cotyledons have white foci of necrosis.

Which one of the following choices is the primary differential diagnosis?

A - Histophilus ovis
B - Brucella
C - Chlamydiosis
D - Toxoplasma gondii
E - Listeria monocytogenes
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1319

20/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Thursday, Oct 19th, 2023

A six-year-old male neutered Yorkshire terrier is presented for routine examination. The owner has no current concerns.

Exam reveals a grade 3/6 left-sided systolic heart murmur. Pulse quality is strong and synchronous and there are no other abnormalities.

What is the most likely cause of the heart murmur?

A - Physiologic
B - Myxomatous mitral valve disease
C - Patent ductus arteriosus
D - Aortic stenosis
E - Carnitine-deficient dilated cardiomyopathy
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1318

19/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Wednesday, Oct 18th, 2023

A one-year-old female llama is presented with hyperkeratosis around the nose and mouth.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

A - Dermatophilosis
B - Zinc-responsive dermatosis
C - Munge
D - Dorsal nasal alopecia
E - Wry face
Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1317

18/10/2023

NAVLE® Question of the Day Tuesday, Oct 17th, 2023

Which canine parasite can cause cutaneous larva migrans in people?

A - Trichostrongylus spp.
B - Spirocerca sp.
C - Habronema spp.
D - Ancylostoma spp.
E - Trichuris spp.

Click below to answer:
https://zukureview.com/zuku-qod/navle/1306

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