Geography Family - Mkolani Sec

Geography Family - Mkolani Sec


Through my knowledge that l got at mtapenda secondary school I'll be hero.
How to prevent hazard caused by earthquake
thankx for teach mE geo sir masawe god bless you!!!
mko vzr
How measurement are important in survey.....???

The Geography Club is an organization whose main focus is to promote awareness of Geography. The Geography Club is a student led organization whose main focus is to promote awareness of Geography and other Social Sciences.

Members of the club will have opportunities to engage in social events, field trips, possible research opportunities and several other activities. The Geography Club also provides an opportunity to get to know other students and Department as well. One of the goals of the club is to explore the realm of Geography and to have fun doing it. The Geography Club is open to all students who are interested in Geography.

Operating as usual


Water mass, body of ocean water with a distinctive narrow range of temperature and salinity and a particular density resulting from these two parameters.
Water masses are formed as the result of climatic effects in specific regions. Antarctic bottom water is an important water mass that forms on the Antarctic continental shelf as a cold, dense residual brine during the formation of sea ice. Its salinity of 34.62 parts per thousand and temperature of -1.9° C (28.6° F) result in a high density of 1.02789 grams per cubic centimetre, causing it to sink and flow northward along the bottom into the southern oceans.

Mediterranean water is another example of a water mass. Excessive evaporation, low rainfall, and high temperatures continually generate large volumes of warm (11.9° C), salty (36.5 parts per thousand) water. Its density of 1.02778 causes it to sink to the bottom of the Mediterranean and overflow across the submarine sill at the Strait of Gibraltar, whence it sinks and spreads at a depth of about 1,000 metres (3,300 feet) in the Atlantic


Storm is a violent atmospheric disturbance, characterized by low barometric pressure, cloud cover, precipitation, strong winds, and possibly lightning and thunder.


Geography Family - Mkolani Sec

1. Fractional or Ratio Scale:
A fractional scale map shows the fraction of an object or land feature on the map. This type uses a set of numbers that represents the object or a landmark. As an example on the left photo, the orange-shaded scale represents a 2/3 fractional scale.

2. Linear Scale:
A linear scale shows the distance between two or more prominent landmarks. The linear scale on maps is a set of lines or dots that represents a landmark. An example on the left photo is a map using a linear scale on each road.

3. Verbal Scale /Statement Scale:
This type of scale use simple words to describe a prominent surface feature. A verbal map scale expands abbreviations to describe a landmark or an object. An example is the image to the left describes a scale as cm is equal to 15 kilometers.


It is true that arid regions barely rain with some desert environments such as The Atacama receiving no rainfall at all the entire year. But when the rains comes in deserts, they can be torrential and copious or can last for days without ceasing. It is this water that is responsible for some landform formations in deserts.

(i) Canyons / Gorges
Gorges (canyons in America) are deep narrow valleys that are excavated and eroded vertically by rivers that flow along deserts. The Grand Canyon in Arizona USA was formed by vertical erosion of sedimentary strata by the Colorado River for millions of years.

(ii)Alluvium fans
Alluvium fans are cone shaped heaps of sand that are deposited on the exit of a wadi or valley.

(iii) Wadis
A wadi is a narrow dry valley with ephemeral water flow (water that flows during heavy rains only). The valley is dry and baked most of the time, but during heavy downpours they can fill up with water and transport all the alluvium from the upslope as sheet wash. This alluvium is deposited as the wadi terminates into an open space.

(iv) Bajada
When several alluvial fans coalesce (join) a bajada is formed. It can be seen as a gently sloping mound of alluvium extending from a hill.

(v) Pediments
A pediment is a very gently sloping inclined bedrock surface. It typically slopes down from the base of a steeper retreating desert cliff. Pediments and bajadas are difficult to distinguish especially when occurring together.

(vi) Playa /Salt pan
A playa is a flat land in a desert formed when water carrying alluvium (clay) or salts planes an area and then evaporates leaving the clay or salts levelled behind. The clay can dry up with deep cracks on it.

(vii) Mesas and Buttes
A mesa is an isolated, flat-topped hill or mountain with steep sides that is smaller in area than a plateau.
A butte is also a flat-topped hill with steep sides, though smaller in area than a mesa

[02/07/19]   EARTHQUAKE
Earthquakes refer to the sudden shaking or vibrations of the earth‘s crust due to sudden and rapid displacement of tectonic plates along the line of weakness (faults). It occurs mainly in volcanic eruption zones (see a map of volcanic zones above). The point from which the earthquake originates is known as focus and the intensity of earthquakes can be measured by using an instrument called seismograph. The point on the surface vertically above the focus is called epicentre

How Earthquake can be Detected
The intensity and magnitude measure the strength of the earthquake. These are obtained by detecting the Seismic waves using instruments called seismograph or seismometer.Intensity is a measure of how hard the earthquake shakes the ground. It is determined through the effects produced by the earthquake. Intensity varies from one place to another. While the intensity of a specific earthquake varies, its magnitude does not vary. So it is important not to confuse magnitude with intensity.The scale which measures the intensity is called Mercalli scale. It ranges from undetectable, moderate, strong to major catastrophe. Magnitude refers to the total amount of energy released and it is given on the Ritcher scale. This scale ranges from 0 to 8.9.

Causes of earthquakes
 Faulting of the lithosphere caused by tectonic movement where one plate slides over
another plate.
 Vulcanism can cause occurrence of the earthquake. This is due to the fact that the magma moves under the influence of intense pressure from within the earth‘s interior.
 Mass wasting like land slide and rock fall can cause occurrence of earthquake, but this is
for local scale.
 Falling objects from the atmosphere such as meteorites may lead to the shaking earth‘s crust.
 Man‘s influence through his activities such as mining using explosives like dynamites and transport vessels like trains and heavy trucks.

Effects of earthquakes
1. They can cause loss of life and property. An earthquake is a natural disaster. Whenever it
occurs, it causes a lot of disturbances including loss of life and properties. For example, the earthquake that hit Toro in Uganda in 1966 killed 157 people, injured about 1300 people and destroyed about 6000 houses. The earthquake which occurred in California–Mexico border in 1975 caused damage running into millions of dollars and injured 100 people on both sides of the
border where most of them suffered cuts from flying glass and debris. And the earthquake that occurred in Northridge in the San Fernando Valley in California in January 1994 killed 61people and caused damage estimated at ten to thirty billion dollars. This damage includes the cost of structures that collapsed such as California Highway, when the earthquake turned the flyover to ruins.
2. They can displace parts of the earth‘s crust vertically or laterally.
3. They can raise or lower parts of the sea floor. The Agadir earthquake in Morocco in 1960
raised the sea flour off the coast. In some areas the depth of the sea decreased from 400 m to 15m after the earthquake.
4. They can raise or lower coastal rocks. In the Alaskan earthquake of 1899, some coastal
rocks were raised by 16 m.
5. They can cause landslide and open up deep cracks in the surface rocks. The El Asnam
earthquake in Algeria, in 1954, destroyed an area of radius 40 km and opened up deep cracks up to 3 m deep.

[10/02/18]   Kuna uwezekano wa kuwepo na mabadiliko makubwa ya tabia nchi hivi karibuni k**a inavyoelezwa kwenye ripoti ya wanasayansi iliyozua mjadala unaoleta utata.

Katika kuelekea katika mkutano wa jopo la wanasayansi ambao utafanyika wiki hii huko Korea Kusini ukiangalia namna ambavyo dunia inakabiliana na ongezeko la joto k**a itafikia nyuzi joto 1.5 katika karne hii.

Hali ambayo inaelezwa kusababisha nchi nyingi zilizopo karibu na bahari kuwa na uwezekano mkubwa wa kupoteza miji yao iliyopo pwani.

Mwaka 2018 unatajwa kuwa mwaka wa nne kuwa na joto ukilingalinganishwa na miaka mingine ya karne hii ya 20.

Pemba na Mombasa katika hatari ya kuangamia. Mwanamazingira kutoka asasi ya Green Icon nchini Tanzania, Tajiriel Urioh anasema k**a hali hii ya mabadiliko ya tabia nchi haitapata muafaka wake basi itegemewe kuwa uwekezaji mkubwa ambao umewekwa katika nchi zetu utapotea.

Rasilimali kubwa inayopatikana katika miji ya utalii k**a Mombasa kwa mfano ambao umetajwa kupotea baada ya miaka 20, utapoteza asili ya watu wake na bandari inayoongeza ukuaji wa uchumi kutokuwepo tena k**a kina cha maji kitaongezeka kutokana na ongezeko la joto.

Tajiriel aliongeza kwa kusema kwamba mabadiliko hatuwezi kuyaona kwa siku moja bali huwa yanaanza taratibu na kuna sehemu nyingine ambazo athari tayari zimeanza kuonekana.

Kwa mfano Pemba katika kisiwa cha Panza , maji zaidi ya mita 100 yameingia nchi kavu na tayari Tanzania tumeshapoteza visiwa viwili kimoja kipo maeneo ya Tanga Pangani na kingine Rufiji'fungu la nyani'.

Chanzo © BBC Swahili

[09/21/18]   1. Fractional or Ratio Scale:
A fractional scale map shows the fraction of an object or land feature on the map. This type uses a set of numbers that represents the object or a landmark. As an example on the left photo, the orange-shaded scale represents a 2/3 fractional scale.

2. Linear Scale:
A linear scale shows the distance between two or more prominent landmarks. The linear scale on maps is a set of lines or dots that represents a landmark. An example on the left photo is a map using a linear scale on each road.

3. Verbal Scale /Statement Scale:
This type of scale use simple words to describe a prominent surface feature. A verbal map scale expands abbreviations to describe a landmark or an object. An example is the image to the left describes a scale as cm is equal to 15 kilometers.


The soil profile is one of the most important concepts in soil science. The soil profile is defined as a vertical section of the soil that is exposed when a soil pit, or hole, is dug from the surface of the soil to the underlying bedrock.



A Stevenson screen (also known as an
instrument shelter) is a meteorological screen to shield instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them. It forms part of a standard weather station. The screen creates, as near possible, a uniform environment in relation to the air outside, and is used to shelter various types of temperature and humidity measuring instruments.

The smallest screens contain a dry bulb thermometer and a wet bulb thermometer .

Larger screens also include minimum and maximum thermometers . Still-larger screens can contain recording instruments: a thermograph and/or a hygrograph , or a thermohygrograph which combines the functions of those two instruments.

[07/20/17]   Statistical geography is the study and
practice of collecting, analysing and
presenting data that has a geographic or areal dimension, such as census or demographics data.

Geographers use statistics in numerous

-To describe and summarize spatial data.

-To make generalizations concerning
complex spatial patterns.

-To estimate the probability of outcomes for an event at a given location.

-To use samples of geographic data to infer characteristics for a larger set of geographic data (population).

-To determine if the magnitude or frequency of some phenomenon differs from one location to another.

-To learn whether an actual spatial pattern matches some expected pattern.


Geography Family - Mkolani Sec

Lava flow


At weather station with form one students


Lava flow




A solar eclipse occurs when the moon gets
between Earth and the sun, and the moon
casts a shadow over Earth. A solar eclipse
can only take place at the phase of new
moon, when the moon passes directly
between the sun and Earth and its shadows
fall upon Earth’s surface.


Tombolo is a sand bar connecting an island to the mainland or to another island. ... 1899, from Italian tombolo "sand dune," from Latin tumulus "hillock, mound" (see thigh). ... A sand or gravel bar that connects an island to the mainland or to another island.


Geyser is a spring characterized by
intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam. It is superheated water. This is one of the extrusive volcanic features


An atoll coral reef (coral atoll) , is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon
partially or completely.


A ria coast is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, extending a distance inland. The sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic (where global sea levels rise), or isostatic (where the local land sinks).


An arete is a knife-edged ridge often found atthe back of a corrie or separating two glaciated
valleys. Arêtes are often extremely narrow features.

[04/17/16]   A powerful 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador
has killed at least 77 people and injured more than 500, Vice-President Jorge Glas says. The quake, Ecuador's largest since 1979, hit at 18:58 on Saturday (23:58 GMT) near thenorthern town of Muisne.
Widespread severe damage is reported, with abridge destroyed as far south as Guayaquil about 300km (190 miles) away.
President Rafael Correa, who is flying back from a trip to Italy, has decreed a state of emergency. He said: "This is a very painful test. I ask thecountry to be calm and united... Let's be strong;we will overcome this."
He added: "Roads and hospitals can be rebuilt;you cannot recover lost lives. That's what hurts
the most."


Dendritic Drainage
A dendritic drainage pattern occurs when the tributary systems subdivides headway like the limbs of a tree. These patterns usually form in horizontal sedimentary or in intrusive igneous rocks where the rock mass is reasonably homogeneous. The tributaries in steep terrains tend to be somewhat subparallel and join at acute angles.


QUESTION: (i) What type of photograph?

(ii) Determine the climate of the area on the photograph.


Sheet erosion


Rills erosion


Gully erosion


Splash erosion


In 1915, the German
geologist and meteorologist
Alfred Wegener first
proposed the theory of
continental drift , which
states that parts of the
Earth's crust slowly drift
atop a liquid core. The fossil
record supports and gives credence to the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics.
Wegener hypothesized that there was a gigantic
supercontinent 200 million years ago, which he
named Pangaea , meaning "All-earth".
Pangaea started to break up into two smaller
supercontinents, called Laurasia and Gondwanaland, during the Jurassic period. By
the end of the Cretaceous period, the continents
were separating into land masses that look like our modern-day continents.
Wegener published this theory in his 1915 book,
On the Origin of Continents and Oceans. In it he also proposed the existence of the supercontinent , and named it (Pangaea means
"all the land" in Greek).


Pavements are commonly covered with stones rather than sand. This may be due to the wind blowing away the finest material leaving the stones behind as they are the bigger particles and remain as a lag deposit or may be through various physical processes including the soil in the ground as the fine materials are moved down beneath the pebbles. This results in the stones remaining on top. Desert pavements can be used as mulch for plants or as a shelter for ants and rodents


Yardangs are also the result of sand grains pushed by persistent winds to form low ridges of sand carved in soft rock. This is commonly found in flat deserts where steady winds blow away dust and silt. Higher front faces
of Yardangs are undercut as erosion is concentrated in the lower areas because wind driven sand stays near the ground. These are an example of erosional landforms


There are two different types of sand dunes
which are the barchan dunes and seif dunes.These are differentiated as barchan dunes areproduced by the action of wind predominately
convex facing from one direction forming crescent-shaped dunes , whereas the seif dunes are long and narrow or can be a chain of dunes. These dunes are generally orientated in a direction parallel to the wind or in a direction in
which have been the result of two or more winds blowing at acute angles to each other. Wind
directions can also alter the series of peaks,gaps, steepness and the face of the sides. These sand dunes are mostly found in open deserts and rest on a base of a sand sheet. Sand dunes are
a result of deposition processes.


Rock pedestals are landforms created by abrasion in which grains cut away the base of
rock structures but leaves their tips intact. This is due to wind-borne sand grains following
bouncing trajectories that carry sand as high as
1m above the ground.

Videos (show all)

Storm is a violent atmospheric disturbance, characterized by low barometric pressure, cloud cover, precipitation, strong...
At weather station with form one students
Lava flow





P.O.BOX 11638
Other Nyegezi schools & colleges (show all)
World Youth Opportunites World Youth Opportunites
Box 218 Nyegezi Street
Nyegezi, 33100

This is a platform which is physically and digitally connected through an attractive hub of exchanging ideas and opportunities to achieve our dreams

St. Mary's Seminary Nyegezi St. Mary's Seminary Nyegezi
Nyegezi, 255

A place that grooms people to be Priests or Good respecting citizens that are to serve either the Nation or The Lord's Shepherds.