Keys To Fiqh

Keys To Fiqh



I Thirst for You

"Behold, I stand at the door and knock… (Rev. 3, 20)

It is true. I stand at the door of your heart, day and night. Even when you are not listening, even when you doubt it could be Me, I am there. I await even the smallest sign of your response, even the least whispered invitation that will allow Me to enter.
And I want you to know that whenever you invite Me, I do come – always, without fail. Silent and unseen I come, but with infinite power and love, and bringing the many gifts of My Spirit. I come with My mercy, with My desire to forgive and heal you, and with a love for you beyond your comprehension – a love every bit as great as the love I have received from the Father ("As much as the Father has loved me, I have loved you…" (Jn. 15:10) I come - longing to console you and give you strength, to lift you up and bind all your wounds. I bring you My light, to dispel your darkness and all your doubts. I come with My power, that I might carry you and all your burdens; with My grace, to touch your heart and transform your life; and My peace I give to still your soul.

I know you through and through. I know everything about you. The very hairs of your head I have numbered. Nothing in your life is unimportant to Me. I have followed you through the years, and I have always loved you – even in your wanderings. I know every one of your problems. I know your needs and your worries. And yes, I know all your sins. But I tell you again that I love you – not for what you have or haven’t done – I love you for you, for the beauty and dignity My Father gave you by creating you in His own image. It is a dignity you have often forgotten, a beauty you have tarnished by sin. But I love you as you are, and I have shed My Blood to win you back. If you only ask Me with faith, My grace will touch all that needs changing in your life, and I will give you the strength to free yourself from sin and all its destructive power.

I know what is in your heart – I know your loneliness and all your hurts – the rejections, the judgments, the humiliations, I carried it all before you. And I carried it all for you, so you might share My strength and victory. I know especially your need for love – how you are thirsting to be loved and cherished. But how often have you thirsted in vain, by seeking that love selfishly, striving to fill the emptiness inside you with passing pleasures – with the even greater emptiness of sin. Do you thirst for love? "Come to Me all you who thirst…" (Jn. 7: 37). I will satisfy you and fill you. Do you thirst to be cherished? I cherish you more than you can imagine – to the point of dying on a cross for you.

I Thirst for You. Yes, that is the only way to even begin to describe My love for you. I THIRST FOR YOU. I thirst to love you and to be loved by you – that is how precious you are to Me. I THIRST FOR YOU. Come to Me, and I will fill your heart and heal your wounds. I will make you a new creation, and give you peace, even in all your trials I THIRST FOR YOU. You must never doubt My mercy, My acceptance of you, My desire to forgive, My longing to bless you and live My life in you. I THIRST FOR YOU. If you feel unimportant in the eyes of the world, that matters not at all. For Me, there is no one any more important in the entire world than you. I THIRST FOR YOU. Open to Me, come to Me, thirst for Me, give me your life – and I will prove to you how important you are to My Heart.

Don’t you realize that My Father already has a perfect plan to transform your life, beginning from this moment? Trust in Me. Ask Me every day to enter and take charge of your life. – and I will. I promise you before My Father in heaven that I will work miracles in your life. Why would I do this? Because I THIRST FOR YOU. All I ask of you is that you entrust yourself to Me completely. I will do all the rest.

Even now I behold the place My Father has prepared for you in My Kingdom. Remember that you are a pilgrim in this life, on a journey home. Sin can never satisfy you, or bring the peace you seek. All that you have sought outside of Me has only left you more empty, so do not cling to the things of this life. Above all, do not run from Me when you fall. Come to Me without delay. When you give Me your sins, you gave Me the joy of being your Savior. There is nothing I cannot forgive and heal; so come now, and unburden your soul.

No matter how far you may wander, no matter how often you forget Me, no matter how many crosses you may bear in this life; there is one thing I want you to always remember, one thing that will never change. I THIRST FOR YOU – just as you are. You don’t need to change to believe in My love, for it will be your belief in My love that will change you. You forget Me, and yet I am seeking you every moment of the day – standing at the door of your heart and knocking. Do you find this hard to believe? Then look at the cross, look at My Heart that was pierced for you. Have you not understood My cross? Then listen again to the words I spoke there – for they tell you clearly why I endured all this for you: "I THIRST…"(Jn 19: 28). Yes, I thirst for you – as the rest of the psalm – verse I was praying says of Me: "I looked for love, and I found none…" (Ps. 69: 20).

All your life I have been looking for your love – I have never stopped seeking to love you and be loved by you. You have tried many other things in your search for happiness; why not try opening your heart to Me, right now, more than you ever have before. Whenever you do open the door of your heart, whenever you come close enough, you will hear Me say to you again and again, not in mere human words but in spirit. "No matter what you have done, I love you for your own sake Come to Me with your misery and your sins, with your troubles and needs, and with all your longing to be loved. I stand at the door of your heart and knock. Open to Me, for I THIRST FOR YOU…

This page is specific to only Fiqh/Usul Fiqh related benefits. All posts are written/translated by A

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⭐Level 2: Umdatul-Ahkām | 10 Months | 414 Hadith⭐

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📚 Memorize, Study, & Understand the Hadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in an organized structured manner. Online & completely free.

📋Some details related to this program:

-In this level, students will memorize 2 Hadith a day in Arabic for 5 days a week (material will be sent Wednesday through Sunday).

-Students will memorize the book: “Umdatul-Ahkaam” authored by Sh. Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi (600h) and edited by Sh. Abdul-Muhsin al-Qāsim, Imam of Masjid Nabawi حفظه الله.

-Students will study the english translation of Shaykh Muhammad b. Salih al-Uthaymeen’s رحمه الله explanation entitled تنبيه الأفهام.

-There will be audio recital and video for each Hadith.

-Students will also recite the Hadith weekly live to ensure correct memorization of the aHadith.

-There will be simple and easy weekly quizzes to assist you in retention of the Hadith's wording and its explanation. Also expect detailed exams at the end of selected chapters in the book.

-Ustadh Abu Awzaa'ee Abdus-Salaam وفقه الله will conduct monthly lectures إن شاء الله where he will provide an in-depth explanation of a hadith or chapter from that month.

-All material will be provided by us and sent to the channel.

🎓Students who complete the program will be awarded an ijāzah in the text traced back to the author and a certificate of completion.

🗓 Start Date: 1st of Sha’ban, 1443h (March 4th, 2021ce) إن شاء الله

🤝 Who can join? Brothers and sisters of all ages. You can join even if your intention is only to read and benefit.

Kindly note: only students who completed Level 1: 40 Hadith Nawawi are eligible for the certificate and ijāzah at the end of this program. If you haven’t completed Level 1 yet then you can start it once it is relaunched (soon).

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✍️ Our Sh. Salih al-Usaymi حفظه الله wrote in فصيحة التحديث:

فَاحْفَظْ كتابَ الأربَعينَ أَوَّلا … فَعُمْدَةً ثُمَّ البُلُوغَ كَمِّلَا
ثُمَّ رِيَاضًا أَزْهَرَتْ لِلنَّوَوِيِّ … فَهؤلاء حِفْظُهَا يَبْنِي القَوِيّ

"Memorize the book: '40 Hadith Nawawi' first, then 'Umdatul Ahkām', then complete (the Hadith of Ahkām) with 'Bulūgh al-Marām'.

Then move onto the radiant 'Riyādh as-Sālihīn' by an-Nawawi as memorizing these compilations builds the strong."


🌟Mastering Comparative Fiqh: the ultimate goal of any aspiring Faqeeh.

Comparative Fiqh (referred to in Arabic as: علم الخلاف أو علم الخلافيات أو علم المناظرات أو الفقه المقارن أو التفسير المقارن) is understanding jurisprudential differences, their evidences, and the method of how jurists reached their final conclusions. The major objective of this study is for the Mujtahid Mutlaq (Unrestricted Jurist) to sift through/analyze the lengthy debates and determine which deduction is closest to the intent of the Shari'ah.

🔎This is a meticulous process requiring a strong foundation, vast knowledge, deep insight of multiple disciplines, and not to mention expertise in the Usul of each Fiqhi Madhhab.

The causes for these differences are many; Shaykhul-Islam ibn Taymiyyah رحمه الله relayed only 10 of them in his famous treaty: رفع الملام عن أئمة الأعلام.

🌱Among the benefits of this topic is to hone the Mujtahid's adeptness in critical analysis. Imam Nawawi stated in the beginning of his "al-Majmu'" that this science يتفتح ذهنه unlocks and flourishes the Faqeeh's mind. This skill is unachievable by simply opening up and reading the Kuwaiti Fiqh encyclopedia or a fatwa on the net.

Mastering this science also trains one in knowing how to provide rulings for contemporary issues.

Additionally, one grows immense respect for each Madhhab and their Imams. This subsequently leads to making dua for them and humbling oneself (the fruit of beneficial knowledge).

💡When should the Faqeeh begin this journey? Read more about it here:

📸 This is a picture of my Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'ee, Dhāhiriyyah/anything related to al-Fiqh al-Muqārin section.

🤲 I ask Allah to grant us all Fiqh (understanding) of this Deen so that we can worship Him upon clear insight. May Allah allow us all to meet Him in a pleasing state. Aameen Ya Rabb.

✍️ Abu Awzaa'ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali وفقه الله
🕋 Makkah al-Mukarramah
🗓 29th Rabi' II 1443 (12/4/21)
🗝 Keys To Fiqh | |

Keys To Fiqh 20/10/2021

Share with married couples. With Allah's assistance, it will solve many martial issues and strengthen the bonds between the spouses.

Keys To Fiqh This channel is specific to only Fiqh/Usul Fiqh related benefits. All posts are written/translated by Abu Awzaa’ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali, Umm al-Quraa University, College of Sharee’ah. Our main channel:


You’ve asked for it, and alhamdulillah now we deliver:

Hanbali Fiqh Discussion groups on Telegram.

Your opportunity to connect with fellow Hanbali disciples and learn about/discuss Fiqh issues.

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🚨1-Day Commentary on "al-Waraqāt" (a concise manual in Usul al-Fiqh) by Imam al-Haramain al-Juwayni رحمه الله.

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🗓 Safar 18, 1443h (Sept. 25) • Saturday • 1-3pm Makkah time

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🎉 Wonderful news for the Hanābilah 🎉

After years of anticipation, Sh. Dhiyāb al-Ghāmdi's حفظه الله editing & checking of "al-Mubdi'" has finally been published in 20 vols.

📝 This work is by Burhan-Deen ibn Muflih d. 884h, not to be confused with his great grandfather Shams-Deen Muhammad Ibn Muflih 763h, author of "al-Furū'". It is the best explanation of "al-Muqni'" by ibn Qudāmah (read more here: & a fundamental book in Hanbali Fiqh.

🔍 "al-Mubdi'" was a resource utilized by the greats in the Madhhab like al-Buhūti in his explanations: ar-Rawdh al-Murbi' & Kashhāf al-Qinā', Ibn an-Najjār in al-Ma'ūnah, al-Khalwaty & Uthmān an-Najdi in their commentaries, ar-Ruhaybāni in al-Matālib & others. In fact, none came after Burhān-Deen except that they referenced this book. Our professors & scholars advise us to use al-Mubdi' for assistance when studying ar-Rawdh.

💫 This book stands out due to its: precise wording, excellent organization, definitions provided, abundant fiqhi extractions, mentioning of evidences, how & where differences arise from the Texts, how parties reached their selection, his conclusions of the most correct, & much more. This is an invaluable asset for the Hanbali especially those studying Sharee'ah in Saudi Universities.

📔 There was a previous print authenticated & checked by sh. Shu'ayb & Abdul-Qādir Al-Arna'ūt & their team غفر الله لهم but it was printed decades ago & was once rare to obtain.

📚 This newer version is currently available in Makkah, Jeddah & hopefully other cities as well. It is a bit hefty on the wallet - a whopping 800 SAR - almost the entire monthly student stipend but إن شاء الله it is surely a fruitful investment.

🤲 May Allah place barakah in our time, knowledge, health, wealth & everything we do so as to learn knowledge in its proper manner, act upon it, & spread to it to Ummah.

✍ Abu Awzaa'ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali

Photos from Keys To Fiqh's post 14/11/2020

Q: Did the Salaf practice ma********on thus indicating its permissibility? |

*Jazaa Allah khayran to the sister who created these slides.

Usul al-Fiqh Among the Hanābilah 24/10/2020

💫 Usul al-Fiqh Among the Hanābilah 💫

In this article I will mention five of the most important works in Usul authored by the Hanābilah. At the end, I will add a brief section highlighting some of the more notable abridgments in Hanbali Usul.

🙏 May Allah accept and place barakah in these efforts.

✍️ Abu Awzaa’ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali
🗝 Keys To Fiqh |

Usul al-Fiqh Among the Hanābilah بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الحمد لله رب العالمين، والصلاة والسلام على رسولنا الكريم، وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين، أما بعد Keys To Fiqh | | In this article I will mention five of …

Keys To Fiqh 20/10/2020

I seek assistance in all of Allah's Names…

This is an excerpt from my unpublished explanation of “Zād al-Mustaqni’” by Musā b. Ahmad al-Hajjāwi (968h) رحمه الله in Hanbali Fiqh. I was requested to share advices related to marriage and provide solutions for those who are currently facing marital issues. So I decided to pre-release this portion of the explanation – which is still incomplete – hoping that it will assist any Muslim out there who is currently tested by Allah in this aspect of their life. May Allah accept this effort and place Barakah (increased consistent blessings) in our marriages and in all that we do.

جزى الله خيرا من تأمل شرحتي … وقابل ما فيها من السهو بالعفو
وأصلح ما أخطأت فيها بفضله … وفطنته أستغفر الله من سهوي
إِنْ أُرِيدُ إِلَّا الْإِصْلَاحَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ ۚ وَمَا تَوْفِيقِي إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ ۚ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ

Written by the poor servant of Allah,
Abu Awzaa’ee Abdus-Salām al-Makki al-Hanbali عفا الله عنه
3rd of Rabi’ al-Awwal, 1442h (10/20/20)

Keys To Fiqh This channel is specific to only Fiqh/Usul Fiqh related benefits. All posts are written/translated by Abu Awzaa’ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali, Umm al-Quraa University, College of Sharee’ah. Our main channel:

The Hanābilah Series: Mansūr al-Buhūti (1051h) 19/08/2020

The Hanābilah Series | Keys To Fiqh

My humble attempt to shed light on the great Imams of the Hanbali Madhhab with the intent of informing the masses of their status and providing better insight to their works. May Allah place barakah in this effort and accept.

First up: Sh. Mansūr al-Buhūti (1051h)

Follow us:

The Hanābilah Series: Mansūr al-Buhūti (1051h) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم I seek assistance in all of Allah’s Names, emphasizing: ar-Rahmān ar-Rahīm. Introduction All praises are due to Allah. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of w…


Diagram of Essential Sciences Related to Fiqh

This is my humble attempt to gather the vital sciences related to Fiqh in diagram format. I hope this will assist the aspiring/current Fiqh student in obtaining a better idea of which sciences/topics are studied before, along with, or after one has mastered a Fiqh manual.

Each science varies in their level of priority and importance, but nevertheless, they must be studied at some point. This is an incomplete work in which I intend to edit with more details in the future إن شاء الله. However, as the poet said,

ولا ترج فعل الخير يوما إلى غد … لعل غدا يأتي وأنت فقيد

“Do not delay good deeds for another day, for perhaps tomorrow arrives whilst you are gone.”

So I ask Allah to accept this effort and allow others to benefit. Aameen.

For high quality PDF & PNG versions to print, click here:

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Diagram of Usul al-Fiqh Topics 24/06/2020

Diagram of Usul al-Fiqh Topics | Keys To Fiqh

This diagram was originally prepared in Arabic by Dr. Abdur-Rahman al-Qarni حفظه الله on the 15th of Safar, 1440h (3rd version). He is a professor at Umm al-Quraa University and teacher at Masjid Haram.

In this file, you will see an outline of the primary topics studied within the science of Usul al-Fiqh.

Hopefully you will find this as a beneficial summary and utilize it in during your studies. I recommend printing and posting it on your wall. وفقكم الله

👋 Join us for more benefits:

Diagram of Usul al-Fiqh Topics بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم This diagram was originally prepared in Arabic by Dr. Abdur-Rahman al-Qarni حفظه الله on the 15th of Safar, 1440h (3rd version). He is a professor at Umm al-Quraa University …


✨💡 Unique opinions held by the Hanbali school (المُفْرَدَات)

Keys To Fiqh | |

Knowing the Mufradāt المُفْرَدَات (or Hanbali-exclusive rulings) of the Hanbali Madhhab is fundamental for the development of Hanbali disciples. This science is usually studied after mastering the issues within the school of thought. It is considered to be the initial stage of learning the differences between the Madhāhib or الخلاف العالي found in "stage 3" as mentioned in .

What is it exactly? It is Fiqh issues followed by the Hanbali school that differ with the "Mashoor" or famous opinions held by the other schools. Note that this unique position could be a second or third opinion held by another Madhhab (ex: an older opinion of Shafi’ee).

How did it come into existence? In the introduction of Sh. Muhammad b. Ali al-Umary al-Maqdisi's (820h) famous 1000 line poem about the Mufradāt, he stated,

واعلم بأن أصحابنا قد صنفوا ... في المفردات جملا وألفوا
لكنهم لم يقصدوا هذا النمط ... بل قصدوا الرد على الكيا فقط

Meaning, the Hanbalis authored in this field as a response to the great scholar "ilkiya" (meaning al-Kabeer) Ali b. Muhammad al-Harrās (504h) - who was the Imam of the Shafi’ee scholars during his time.

ilkiya stated (in short) that the Hanbali Madhhab wasn't an independent Madhhab. Instead, it was essentially the Shāfi'ee Madhhab with edits of a few different issues that were considered to be weak.

After hearing that, the Hanbali scholars decided to refute this doubt. They began authoring/composing works mentioning the issues where the Hanābilah differed along with its evidences, strength/validity, and weakness of the other positions (there are some books that simply mention the issues without these details). Plenty of these texts were authored during the time of al-Qādhi Abu Ya'laa's students. There were numerous works in this field and among the more famous ones:

1. al-Mufradāt by Abu Ya'laa as-Sagheer
2. al-Mufradāt الانتصار في المسائل الكبار by Abu Khateeb
3. al-Mufradāt by Abul Wafaa b. Aqeel al-Baghdādi
4. The poem mentioned above by al-Umary. Sh. Mansur al-Buhutī actually has an explanation of it in 2 volumes entitled المنح الشافيات بشرح مفردات الإمام أحمد. It was checked/edited by our beloved Shaykh Abdullah al-Mutlaq حفظه الله. Many scholars recommend memorizing this poem.
5. There is also a wonderful contemporary work under the supervision of Sh. Abdullah b. Sa'd ar-Rasheed حفظه الله entitled المفردات في مذهب الحنابلة in 10 vols. It comprises of a total of 7 dissertations (5 doctorates' and 2 masters').

You also find al-Mardaawi giving attention to the Mufradāt in al-Insāf.

Just as the Shāfi'ee scholars are known for their works on الأشباه والنظائر, the Hanbalis are known for المفردات. May Allah have mercy on all of these scholars and grant them the highest abode in Paradise for their efforts in aiding us to worship Allah upon correct knowledge.

✍️ Abu Awzaa’ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali
🕋 Makkah al-Mukarramah حرسها الله
🗓 18th of Shawwaal, 1441 (6/10/2020 CE) |

Photos from Keys To Knowledge's post 12/05/2020

Can women lead their Mahārim in prayer for Tarāwīh?

A response to Yasir Qadhi & Hatem al-Haj.

In this fatwa (religious verdict), we see that Yasir Qadhi agrees with Hatem al-Haj’s ruling for the permissibility of a woman leading a man in Tarāwīh prayers, provided that there are certain conditions met. al-Haj states, "...This rotation of imams may include women and girls. They may lead from the back, only in taraweeḥ, and only their mahram men, according to the position of the majority of earlier Ḥanbalis (with some of them adding: if the men are not good reciters). Note: this is not the authorized position among the latter Ḥanbalis…" End quote.

This post will be an analysis & breakdown of their verdict. First off, I would like to mention that in terms of knowledge-based discussions, there is nothing wrong to discuss & review issues with the intent of finding the truth.

Secondly, it is critical as students of Islamic scholarship - especially those who have taken positions of leadership - to abstain from relaying what has been mention in Fiqh books without critical analysis. When studying Fiqh, one must discern the reasoning behind certain Imams’ conclusions, understand that their opinions are not always 100% correct (and can be corrected), and AVOID conveying strange opinions to the general folk. Each of these points require an entire post in & of itself...But I digress...

This is not a personal attack on either speaker. This is strictly a knowledge-based response.

*Please note: the majority of scholars do not accept this view.*

⚡️ Summary of my discussion points:
⚫ 1. Did the “earlier Hanbalis” see the permissibility of a woman leading another man in the optional prayer like Tarāwīh?

🔵 2. What is the evidence for their position?

🔴 3. Evidence Analysis & what influenced the “latter Hanbalis” to change their position?

⚫ Point 1:

First we need to understand who al-Haj means in his statement the “earlier Hanbalis” & “latter Hanbalis”. The scholars of the Madhab are categorized into 3 time periods:

1. “Earlier Hanbalis” refers to the period of time between the students of Imām Ahmad (ex: Abu Dawūd, Ibrāhim al-Harbi, al-Marūdhi, etc.) up until al-Qādhi Abu Ya’lā (d. 458h).

3. The “latter Hanbalis” references the time period beginning from al-Mardāwi (d. 885) onwards, رحمهم الله جميعا.

And between both periods (1 & 3) are the level of Hanbali scholars who are referred to as the متوسطون, which begins with the students of Abu Ya’lā (458h) & ends at Burhān ad-Dīn ibn Muflih (al-Hafeed d. 884h).

Did the earlier Hanbalis (241h-458h) see the permissibility of a woman leading a man in Tarāwīh prayers? Yes, they did (but not all of them), as well as others outside of the Madhab:

Ahmad, “The leading of a woman over a male in the Tarāwīh prayers is valid.” [al-Ifsāh by Ibn Hubayrah, 1/145]

Abu Thawr stated, “There is no (need to pray again) for (a male) who prayed behind (a female).” [al-Mughni 3/33, Turki/Hulū]

al-Muzany & Ibn Jarir al-Tabary held similar views.

al-Qādhi Abu Ya’lā stated in his explanation to “Mukhtasar al-Khiraqi”, the 11th issue: “And as for women (leading men in prayer), then it is not valid except in the case of Tarāwīh prayers - provided there is no Qari among the men besides her. In any other instance, women leading men is not valid.” (1/66)

🔵 2. What is the evidence for their position?

The hadith in Sunan Abi Dawud:

“The Messenger of Allah(ﷺ) used to visit her at her house. He appointed a mu’adhdhin to call adhan for her; and he commanded her to lead the inmates of her house in prayer. ‘Abd al-Rahman said: I saw her mu’adhdhin who was an old man.”

As mentioned by Abu Ya’lā,

وإنما جازت إمامتها في ذلك الموضع خاصة لحديث أم ورقة الأنصارية: أنّ النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أجاز لها أن تؤم أهل دارها وفيهم رجال

“A woman leading (in the Tarāwīh prayers) is permissible in that specific instance only due to the Hadith of Umm Waraqah al-Ansāriyyah (which stated) that the Prophet ﷺ permitted her to lead the people in her home *while there were men present.*” (Sharh Mukhtasar al-Khiraqi, 1/66)

They took this position because of the hadith linked above.

🔴 3. Evidence Analysis & what influenced the “latter Hanbalis” to change their position?

As mentioned earlier, there were some Hanābilah from the beginning who disagreed with the concept of women leading men in Tarāwīh. But as for those who changed their opinions, here are some of the reasons:

🔸 1. Inaccurate renditions of the hadith. The version of the hadith quoted by Abu Ya’lā has the extra wording of “while there were men present” which cannot be found in Sunan Abu Dawud nor any other Hadith book. These non-existent additions leads to incorrect Fiqh rulings. This minority opinion is an example of that.

🔸 2. The Hadith in Sunan Abi Dawud states, “‘Abdur-Rahman said: I saw her mu’adhdhin (caller to prayer) who was an old man.”

A. There are a couple issues with the chain, but it is graded Hasan li-ghayrihi via other supporting routes by al-Albaany & others.

B. Abdur-Rahman al-Khallād said that “he saw the caller of the prayer was an old man”. However, this does not confirm that he prayed with Umm Waraqah. It is more likely that after he made the Iqāmah, he went to the masjid (or wherever the men were) and prayed in congregation with them. (Sharh ar-Rawdh 3/192, al-Mushaqih)

🔸 3. If fact, when you gather all of the routes of this hadith, there is no mention of men praying in that house. Instead, we find the narration in Sunan ad-Dāraqutnī ( #1083) which states:

عن أم ورقة: أنّ النبي -ﷺ- أذن لها أن يؤذن لها ويقام وتؤم نساءها

“On the authority of Umm Waraqah that the Prophet ﷺ authorized the Adhan & Iqāmah to be performed on her behalf and for her to lead the women of her household.”

This hadith details that Umm Waraqah led *women of her household* in Salah and there were no men. Any student who has studied the basic of Usul al-Fiqh is familiar with the concept of تخصيص العام, specification of general texts. It is extremely likely that this particular wording was unknown among the “earlier Hanbalis” which would explain why they took their view.

🔸 4. The origin of this Fiqh issue is that:
A. Women can never lead a man in Salah:
وَلَا تَؤُمَّنَّ اِمْرَأَةٌ رَجُلًا
"A woman is never to lead a man in prayer.” This is a weak hadith in Ibn Majah but its meaning is agreed upon unanimously among the Fuqahā and supported via other texts.

B. and the Imam leads in front of the congregation.

There is absolutely no evidence to support the idea that a person can lead from the back. Thus, the origin remains the same until further evidence. (see al-Mumti’ 4/222, Ibn Uthaymīn)

🖋 Finally, Ibn Qudāmah said, “…and (in) the Hadith of Umm Waraqah, the Prophet ﷺ permitted her to lead the women of her household just as it was narrated by Dāraqutni. It is obligatory to accept this addition. Even if that narration was not mentioned, it would have been incumbent for the narration to assume that meaning. That is because the Prophet ﷺ approved her to lead the obligatory prayer - as he gave her a Muadhin - and the Adhan is only performed for obligatory prayers. There is no difference of opinion of women leading men in the obligatory prayers (it is not permissible by consensus)…” [al-Mughni 3/33]

🔆 In Islam, it is not befitting for a person of knowledge to simply narrate or speak about hadith/fiqh unless they have gathered & studied all of its related chains of narrations/texts. Unfortunately, I have come across too many instances of some rushing in their fatāwa to amaze people with their outlandish statements.

🎙 Our Sh. Abdus-Salām ash-Shuway’ir حفظه الله would constantly say, “avoid relaying bizarre opinions to the masses" b/c most of the time they are the weak/minority view. He said that some people love mentioning these strange issues to the general folk b/c it grabs the attention of others. It is only from Allah’s success & bounty upon a student that he is protected against this trial. This is only a reminder وَذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرَىٰ تَنفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ. I ask Allah to protect us all. Wallahu alam.

✍ Abu Awzaa'ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali
🗓 29th Sha'ban, 1441 (4/22/2020CE)
🕋 Makkah al-Mukarramah |


📚🔎What books should be studied in order to progress in the Hanbali Madhhab?

Keys To Fiqh | |

Before we discuss the books within the 3 levels referenced in , I think it is important to mention some of the books our scholars in the Madhhab suggest to study before reaching the final level of "at-Tadqeeq" التدقيق.

Allah tells us in the Quran,

وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا

💡Among the usages of this verse is to show that every scholar has their own method in how & what books to study, so suggestions really depends on the scholar. With that being said, before you even think about studying any book, you should supplicate to Allah asking Him to guide you to a proficient well-versed scholar/teacher. A skillful experienced scholar will simplify this path, guide you throughout your journey, & protect you from falling into the many potholes along the way.

🎙Our beloved Sh. Muhammad Ali Adam al-Ityoobi حفظه الله once said,

ويأخذ العلوم عمن كملا ... أهلية كذاك في الدين اعتلى
مشتهرا بالعلم والصيانة ... ينشر علمه مع العناية
The student obtains knowledge from one who has completed their qualifications (in knowledge) & also ascended in the Deen (specifically in character & action). This scholar should be known for their knowledge & protection (of the Deen against misguidance & innovations), & is one who spreads his knowledge w/ care & consideration.

👣Follow your teacher's method & suggestions.

What are some suggested methods one should take? I'll mention 3 views:

A. Sh. Mutlaq al-Jāsir حفظه الله mentioned in this order:
1. Bidāyatul-Ābid wa Kifāyatul-Zāhid by al-Ba'li (1192h)
2. Umdatul-Tālib Li-Nayl al-Ma'ārib by al-Buhūti (1051h)
3. Hidāyatul Rāghib (exp. to the book above) by Uthman an-Najdī
4. Exp. of Muntahā al-Irādāt by al-Buhūti. After this program one will become a Faqeeh of the Hanbali Madhhab & have the ability to read the other larger compilations within the Madhhab.

B. Sh. Ahmad al-Qu'aymi حفظه الله mentioned that Hanbali Fiqh has two stages. In the initial stage the student should study the following books:

1. Ahksar al-Mukhtasarāt by ibn Balbān (1083h)
2. Umdatul Tālib by al-Buhūti
3. Dalīl at-Tālib by Mar'i al-Karami (1033h)
4. Kāfī al-Mubtadī by bin Balbān
5. Zād al-Mustaqni' by Musa al-Hajjāwi (968h)
*6. ar-Rawdh al-Murbi' by al-Buhūti

In his view, the student can either start from 1 & end at 5, or go the opposite route, or even shuffle between 1-5. The main objective is to memorize ONE of those texts, master its contents, then read the other 4 texts in order to cover the additional issues discussed therein.

In terms of preference, then the Sh. suggests memorizing: Zaad. If you're not able to, then Dalīl at-Tālib is the second suggestion, then it is Ahksar al-Mukhtasarāt, then Umdatul Tālib, then Kāfī al-Mubtadī. You will choose ONE of those 5 to memorize. (When selecting a text to memorize, see which one is most suitable for you. This depends on the style of the author & which is being taught in your area)

The main goal of this stage is to cover all 5 books with ONE of them being your foundation. You will then examine the additional issues in the other books & add them to your foundation. You then move onto #6.

C. Ibn Badrān رحمه الله has a wonderful program as well where he combines Usūl along with the issues of Fiqh. The previous two programs also include Usūl studies along w/ Fiqh, but to add them here would make this post too long. There will be a separate post in the future about Usūl إن شاء الله. Ibn Badrān stated the Hanbali should move in this order:

1. Ahksar al-Mukhtasarāt OR Umdatul Tālib
2. Dalīl at-Tālib OR Umdatul Fiqh by ibn Qudāmah (620h), with the latter being preferred over the first
3. Here one will learn Usūl al-Fiqh beginning with al-Waraqāt w/ its exp. by al-Muhalli (864h), then Mukhtasar at-Tahrīr
4. After obtaining Usūl, the student begins their studies of ar-Rawdh al-Murbi'. To become a Faqīh one must know both sciences.
5. Finally they begin to study the explanation of Muntahā al-Irādāt by al-Buhūti along w/ Rawdatun-Nādhir (Usūl) by ibn Qudāmah.

The Shaykh also gives suggestions for the other Madhāhib in his book المدخل إلى مذهب الإمام أحمد بن حنبل pgs. 487-489 for those who would like to review.

These are some suggestions & there are many others. Once again, follow YOUR scholar's program. If you don't have a teacher, then pick one of the three programs above. In future posts, we will speak on how to study the books mentioned above in detail, ibn Qudāmah's works, & many other issues related to Hanbali Fiqh إن شاء الله. If you like this content let us know by liking, commenting, & sharing. This feedback informs us to post more! جزاكم الله خيرا

✍️ Abu Awzaa’ee Abdus-Salaam al-Makki al-Hanbali
🕋 Makkah al-Mukarramah حرسها الله
🗓 22nd of Sha’baan, 1441 (4/15/2020 CE) |

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