Presure vessel inspector

api 653 api 510 presure vessel inspector & c swip 3.1 welding inspector and certificate

Operating as usual






Here are some common problems associated with process piping:

* Corrosion: Piping can corrode over time due to exposure to various chemicals, temperatures, and environmental conditions, leading to leaks and reduced structural integrity.
* Erosion: High-velocity fluid flow can cause erosion of piping materials, especially at bends, fittings, and elbows, resulting in thinning of the pipe wall.
* Abrasion: Particulate matter in the fluid stream can cause abrasion of the pipe surface, leading to material loss and potential leaks.
* Thermal Stress: Temperature variations can induce thermal stress in piping systems, leading to distortion, cracking, or failure of the pipe material.
* Vibration: Mechanical vibrations from equipment or fluid flow can cause fatigue failure in piping, especially at connections and supports.
* Water Hammer: Rapid changes in fluid flow velocity can create water hammer effects, causing pressure surges that stress the piping system and components.
* Material Compatibility: Improper material selection or compatibility issues with process fluids can result in chemical reactions, degradation, and failure of the piping material.
* Joint Leaks: Poorly executed welding, fl**ge connections, or gasket failures can lead to leaks at pipe joints, compromising system integrity.
* Clogging: Accumulation of debris, scale, or sediment in the piping can lead to reduced flow rates, pressure drops, and operational issues.
* Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI): Insulation on piping systems can trap moisture, leading to localized corrosion of the pipe surface, particularly in outdoor or humid environments.

* Pressure Fluctuations: Rapid changes in pressure within the piping system, such as pressure spikes or depressurization events, can stress the pipe material and lead to failures.
* Hydrogen Embrittlement: In systems dealing with hydrogen-containing fluids or environments, hydrogen embrittlement can occur, weakening the pipe material and increasing the risk of cracking.
* Creep: Prolonged exposure to high temperatures and stress levels can cause creep deformation in piping materials, resulting in dimensional changes and potential failure over time.
* Fouling: Buildup of deposits, such as scale, rust, or biological growth, inside the piping can reduce flow efficiency, increase pressure drop, and lead to operational inefficiencies.
* Freeze-Thaw Damage: In cold climates or systems with exposure to freezing temperatures, water or fluid trapped in the piping can freeze and expand, causing cracks or ruptures in the pipe walls.
* Excessive Expansion/Contraction: Thermal expansion and contraction of piping materials due to temperature variations can lead to stress concentrations, movement at supports, and potential fatigue failure.
* Chemical Attack: Exposure to aggressive chemicals, acids, or alkalis can cause chemical attack on the pipe material, leading to corrosion, degradation, and loss of structural integrity.


๐‘ฏ๐’๐’˜ ๐’„๐’‚๐’ ๐’—๐’Š๐’”๐’–๐’‚๐’ ๐’Š๐’๐’”๐’‘๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’„๐’๐’๐’•๐’“๐’Š๐’ƒ๐’–๐’•๐’† ๐’•๐’ ๐’Š๐’Ž๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’…๐’–๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’—๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’”๐’‚๐’‡๐’†๐’•๐’š ๐’Š๐’ ๐’˜๐’†๐’๐’…๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’๐’‘๐’†๐’“๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’๐’”?
Visual inspection plays a crucial role in improving productivity and safety in welding operations in the following ways:

๐‘ฌ๐’‚๐’“๐’๐’š ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’•๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’‡๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’”:
Visual inspection allows for the early detection of welding defects, such as cracks, porosity, or incomplete fusion. By identifying these issues promptly, necessary corrective actions can be taken early in the process, minimizing the need for rework or repairs at later stages. This helps prevent the accumulation of defects, reduces downtime, and improves overall productivity.
๐‘พ๐’†๐’๐’…๐’†๐’“ ๐‘ท๐’†๐’“๐’‡๐’๐’“๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’„๐’† ๐‘ฌ๐’—๐’‚๐’๐’–๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
Visual inspection provides an opportunity to assess the performance of welders. By thoroughly examining their welds, inspectors can identify any deficiencies in technique, workmanship, or adherence to welding procedures. Timely feedback and corrective measures can be implemented to improve welder skills, leading to increased productivity and higher-quality welds.
๐‘ท๐’“๐’๐’„๐’†๐’”๐’” ๐‘ถ๐’‘๐’•๐’Š๐’Ž๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
Visual inspection data can be analyzed to identify patterns, trends, or recurring issues. This information can help optimize welding processes, equipment settings, or welding parameters. By addressing areas of concern or implementing process improvements based on visual inspection findings, productivity can be enhanced, and the likelihood of defects or rework can be reduced.
๐‘บ๐’‚๐’‡๐’†๐’•๐’š ๐‘จ๐’”๐’”๐’–๐’“๐’‚๐’๐’„๐’†:
Visual inspection is essential for ensuring the safety of welded structures or components. By detecting and addressing defects that may compromise the structural integrity or performance of welds, visual inspection helps prevent potential failures, accidents, or injuries. This contributes to a safer working environment for welders and end-users, reducing the risk of incidents and associated downtime.
By integrating visual inspection as an integral part of the welding process, productivity can be improved through early defect detection, process optimization, and welder performance evaluation. Moreover, ensuring the safety and compliance of welds through visual inspection helps mitigate risks, reduces downtime due to failures or rework, and fosters a culture of quality and safety in welding operations.


The welding process chosen will depend on severel factors from the material to be joined to the joint quality required..

Mateial Thickness....
All >- 3mm
TiG (low produtivity)
Generelly Thin section


Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Incoloy (r) alloy 825 machined using conventionel machining methods wich are used for iron. Based alloys . Machiining operations are perfomed using commercial coolants. High speed operations such as grinding .milling or turning are perfomed using coolants.

Incoloy are 825 can be formed using all conventional techniques.
Incoloy (r) alloy is welded using gas tungsten arc welding .sheilded metal arc welding gas metal arc welding and submerged arc welding methods.
Heat Treatment
Incoloy (r) alloy 825 is heat treated by annealling at at 930-980* c (1700*f-1800*f) followed by colling.
Incoloy (r) alloy 825 is forged 983to 1094*c(1800to2000*f)
Cold working
Standard tooling is used for cold working incoloy (r) alloy 825.
Incoloy(r) alloy 825 is annealed at 930-980*(1700*f-1800*f) followed by cooling.
The optimum temprature for stabllization is considered to be 1725*f(940*c)
Incoloy (r)alloy 825 is hardened by cold working . Chemical process equipment.


Understanding the Sources of Corrosion in Refineries

Corrosion poses a significant challenge in refining operations, with numerous sources contributing deterioration of equipment & infrastructure.By categorizing these sources into three main groupsโ€”corrosion from crude oil components, chemicals used in refining processes & environmental factorsโ€”we can better comprehend the complex phenomena of corrosion within refineries.

1.Corrosion from Crude Oil Components:

To grasp the intricacies of corrosion in refineries, it's essential to delve into physicochemical properties of crude oil and natural gas.While crude oil itself isn't inherently corrosive, it contains impurities & components such as nitrogen, sulfur, & oxygen,which can contribute to corrosion. These impurities exist in various forms within crude oil, including liquids, solids, gases, and microorganisms. Although composition of these compounds varies across different crude oils, their corrosive potential remains consistent.

Natural gas found in cru


Potential Hydrogen Level Processes.
List of welding processes in order of lowest hydrogen content with regard to 100 grams of deposited weld metal..


Photos from Presure vessel inspector 's post 28/03/2024

Nozzle cutting with gas torch


ใ€๐–๐ž๐ฅ๐๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ƒ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: ๐‚๐š๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ, ๐๐ซ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‚๐จ๐ซ๐ซ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐งใ€‘
1. ๐—–๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜€๐—ฒ๐˜€:
โ–บ๐™๐™๐™š๐™ง๐™ข๐™–๐™ก ๐™š๐™›๐™›๐™š๐™˜๐™ฉ๐™จ:
Non-uniform heating and cooling during welding result in differential expansion and contraction, leading to distortion.
โ–บ๐™๐™š๐™จ๐™ž๐™™๐™ช๐™–๐™ก ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™จ๐™š๐™จ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™จ๐™๐™ง๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ ๐™–๐™œ๐™š:
Volume changes during weld cooling induce residual stresses.
โ–บ๐™…๐™ค๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ฉ ๐™™๐™š๐™จ๐™ž๐™œ๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™›๐™ž๐™ฉ-๐™ช๐™ฅ:
Inaccurate joint preparation and fit-up introduce misalignment.

2. ๐——๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป:
โ–บ๐™‹๐™ง๐™ค๐™ฅ๐™š๐™ง ๐™Ÿ๐™ค๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ฉ ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™š๐™ฅ๐™–๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™›๐™ž๐™ฉ-๐™ช๐™ฅ:
Ensuring accurate joint geometry and fit-up minimizes inherent misalignment.
โ–บAppropriate joint design to reduce the volume of weld metal as possible.
โ–บBalance the welding about the middle of the joint by using a double-V joint in preference to a single-V joint
โ–บ๐™‹๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™š๐™ฉ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™™๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ with angular (not straight) position, when distorted it will be in straight alignment.
โ–บ๐™‹๐™ง๐™š๐™๐™š๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™ฅ๐™ค๐™จ๐™ฉ-๐™ฌ๐™š๐™ก๐™™ ๐™๐™š๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ข๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ:
Managing temperature differentials and residual stresses.
โ–บ๐™๐™ž๐™ญ๐™ฉ๐™ช๐™ง๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™˜๐™ก๐™–๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™ข๐™š๐™ฉ๐™๐™ค๐™™๐™จ:
Stabilizes the structure and restricts distortion.



Demagnetization is an important step that is often performed after magnetic testing to remove any residual magnetism induced in the material during the testing process.

๐‘ท๐’–๐’“๐’‘๐’๐’”๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
Residual magnetism can interfere with subsequent processes or cause undesired effects on the material or component. Demagnetization is performed to eliminate this residual magnetism and restore the material to its original magnetic state.
๐‘ด๐’†๐’•๐’‰๐’๐’…๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
Demagnetization can be achieved through various methods, depending on the size and shape of the component, as well as the level of residual magnetism. Common demagnetization techniques include:
๐‘จ๐‘ช ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
Alternating current is applied to the component using a demagnetization coil or yoke. The current gradually reduces to zero, effectively demagnetizing the material.
๐‘ซ๐‘ช ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
Direct current is applied to the material using a demagnetization coil or yoke. The current is slowly decreased to zero, demagnetizing the material.
๐‘ช๐’๐’Ž๐’ƒ๐’Š๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
A combination of AC and DC currents may be used to demagnetize the material, depending on the specific requirements.
๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐‘ฌ๐’’๐’–๐’Š๐’‘๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’•:
Demagnetization equipment consists of demagnetization coils, yokes, or electromagnetic devices. These devices generate the required alternating or direct current to demagnetize the material.
The equipment should be properly calibrated and used in accordance with applicable standards and procedures to ensure effective demagnetization.
๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐‘ท๐’“๐’๐’„๐’†๐’”๐’”:
The demagnetization process typically involves passing the component through or near the demagnetization equipment while applying the appropriate current.
The demagnetization procedure may include specific parameters such as the demagnetization level, number of passes, and rotation or movement of the component to ensure thorough demagnetization.
๐‘ฝ๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’‡๐’Š๐’„๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’†๐’•๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
After demagnetization, it is important to verify the effectiveness of the process. This can be done using magnetic field detectors or residual magnetism testing techniques to ensure that the residual magnetism has been adequately reduced.
Demagnetization after magnetic testing is an essential step to eliminate residual magnetism and prevent any adverse effects. Proper demagnetization procedures and equipment should be employed to ensure the material or component is returned to its original magnetic state, maintaining its integrity and suitability for subsequent processes or applications.

Photos from Presure vessel inspector 's post 13/03/2024


Photos from Presure vessel inspector 's post 13/03/2024


Photos from Presure vessel inspector 's post 12/03/2024

Satucture in paint proces


๐…๐ž๐ซ๐ซ๐ข๐ญ๐ž ๐“๐ž๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐’๐ญ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ฅ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ ๐’๐ญ๐ž๐ž๐ฅ๐ฌ

โœง๐—™๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด is an important quality control process used to determine the ferrite content in stainless steel materials, especially welds.
๏ฟซ It provides valuable information about the microstructure and predicts material behavior during fabrication and service.

โœง๐—ช๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—ถ๐˜€ ๐—™๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ?
๏ฟซ Ferrite is one of the major microstructural phases found in stainless steels along with austenite.
๏ฟซ It is magnetic in nature compared to non-magnetic austenite.
๏ฟซ ๐‘ป๐’‰๐’† ๐’‘๐’†๐’“๐’„๐’†๐’๐’•๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐’‡๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’Š๐’•๐’† ๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’‚๐’‡๐’‡๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’” ๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’‘๐’†๐’“๐’•๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’๐’Š๐’Œ๐’† ๐’‰๐’‚๐’“๐’…๐’๐’†๐’”๐’”, ๐’•๐’๐’–๐’ˆ๐’‰๐’๐’†๐’”๐’”, ๐’…๐’–๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’Š๐’•๐’š, ๐’˜๐’†๐’๐’…๐’‚๐’ƒ๐’Š๐’๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’„๐’๐’“๐’“๐’๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’Š๐’”๐’•๐’‚๐’๐’„๐’†.
๏ฟซ Ferrite improves weld strength but decreases ductility and corrosion resistance.

โœง๐—ง๐˜†๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฆ๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—น๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—ฆ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—น๐˜€:
๏ฟซ ๐˜ผ๐™ช๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™˜ Stainless Steels (e.g. 304, 316):
These have low ferrite content, usually < 1%. Ferrite decreases corrosion resistance.
๏ฟซ ๐˜ฟ๐™ช๐™ฅ๐™ก๐™š๐™ญ Stainless Steels (e.g. 2205, 2507):
Contain a mix of austenite and ferrite. Require 25-65% ferrite for optimal properties.
๏ฟซ ๐™๐™š๐™ง๐™ง๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™˜ Stainless Steels (e.g. 409, 430):
Contain up to 100% ferrite in annealed condition. Minimum 85% ferrite required.
๏ฟซ ๐™ˆ๐™–๐™ง๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™˜ Stainless Steels (e.g. 410, 420):
Have 75-95% ferrite in annealed state. 75-90% needed for good corrosion resistance.

โœง๐—ง๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐— ๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ต๐—ผ๐—ฑ๐˜€:
1. ๐™ˆ๐™š๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ก๐™ก๐™ค๐™œ๐™ง๐™–๐™ฅ๐™๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™๐™š๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ (๐˜ฟ๐™š๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ช๐™˜๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š):
Involves microscopic analysis of etched samples. Accurate but time-consuming and requires expert analysis.

2. ๐™๐™š๐™ง๐™ง๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™š๐™จ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ฅ๐™š ๐™๐™š๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ (๐™‰๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐˜ฟ๐™š๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ช๐™˜๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š):
Uses magnetic induction principle to rapidly measure ferrite content. Widely used for its speed and portability.

โœง๐—™๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐—”๐—ฐ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—–๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ช๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ฑ๐˜€:
1.Austenitic steels: 4-8% (Keep > FN4.) ferrite prevents micro-cracking during solidification.
2.Duplex steels: 30-65% ferrite required for strength and corrosion resistance.

โœง๐—–๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—™๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐˜‚๐—น๐—ฎ๐˜€:
๏ฟซ Ferrite % = 0.7 x FN (for 22% Cr duplex)
๏ฟซ Ferrite % = 0.65 x FN (for 25% Cr duplex)
๏ฟซ FN = (Ferrite %) x [Formula] (for FN >10)


๐’Š๐’Ž๐’†-๐’๐’‡-๐’‡๐’๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’‰๐’• ๐’…๐’Š๐’‡๐’‡๐’“๐’‚๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ (๐‘ป๐‘ถ๐‘ญ๐‘ซ):

๐‘ญ๐’–๐’๐’ ๐‘ช๐’๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’๐’”๐’‘๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
TOFD offers full coverage inspection, meaning it provides complete scanning of the weld volume. This ensures that all areas of the weld are inspected, reducing the risk of missing defects that may be hidden beneath the surface.
๐‘ฐ๐’๐’…๐’†๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’…๐’†๐’๐’• ๐‘บ๐’Š๐’›๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘ฐ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ:
TOFD separates defect sizing from imaging. The sizing is based solely on time-of-flight measurements, while imaging is performed using conventional ultrasonic techniques. This allows for accurate defect sizing without sacrificing image quality.
๐‘ช๐’‚๐’๐’Š๐’ƒ๐’“๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘ฝ๐’‚๐’๐’Š๐’…๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
TOFD requires calibration and validation to ensure accurate defect sizing. Calibration blocks containing known defect sizes are used to establish the relationship between time-of-flight and defect dimensions. Validation blocks are used to verify the performance of the TOFD system.
๐‘ซ๐’‚๐’•๐’‚ ๐‘จ๐’๐’‚๐’๐’š๐’”๐’Š๐’”:
TOFD data analysis involves interpreting the time-of-flight measurements and mapping them to the actual size and position of defects within the weld. Advanced software tools are used to analyze the data and generate visual representations of the defects.
๐‘ซ๐’†๐’‡๐’†๐’„๐’• ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’•๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
TOFD is a highly sensitive ultrasonic technique used for the detection of planar defects in welds. It is particularly effective for identifying cracks, lack of fusion, and other similar discontinuities.
๐‘บ๐’Š๐’›๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘ช๐’‰๐’‚๐’“๐’‚๐’„๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’›๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
TOFD provides accurate sizing and characterization of defects within welds. By measuring the time-of-flight of diffracted signals, the length and height of the defects can be determined, allowing for quantitative assessment of their size.
๐‘ฏ๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’‰ ๐‘ท๐’“๐’๐’ƒ๐’‚๐’ƒ๐’Š๐’๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’•๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’:
TOFD has a high probability of detecting planar defects, even small ones. The diffracted signals from the edges of defects are highly pronounced, making them easily distinguishable from the background noise.


๐’๐จ๐ฎ๐ซ ๐’๐ž๐ซ๐ฏ๐ข๐œ๐ž ๐„๐ง๐ฏ๐ข๐ซ๐จ๐ง๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ข๐ง ๐Ž๐ข๐ฅ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐†๐š๐ฌ ๐Ž๐ฉ๐ž๐ซ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ
"Materials and Welding Challenges"

๐—ฆ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ refers to the corrosive conditions present when piping and equipment come in contact with fluids containing high concentrations of hazardous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas.

๐—ง๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ฆ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฆ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—–๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜€
๏ฟซ H2S above 0.05 mol% or 0.05 psia partial pressure causes ๐™จ๐™ช๐™ก๐™›๐™ž๐™™๐™š ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™จ ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™˜๐™ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ (๐™Ž๐™Ž๐˜พ), a form of hydrogen embrittlement cracking in steels.
๏ฟซ It also accelerates corrosion and can compromise integrity.
๏ฟซ H2S is extremely toxic and flammable, posing health, safety and environmental risks.

๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ฆ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฆ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ

โœง ๐— ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ฆ๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป
๏ฟซ Alloy steels with at least 0.5% Mo and minimum 4-7% Ni content offer improved SSC resistance, 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo steels commonly used.
๏ฟซ Stainless steels like duplex/super-duplex grades provide good SSC resistance with high PREN > 40 preferred.
๏ฟซ Non-metallics like FRP, thermoplastics, and FRP or thermoplastic lined piping also suitable.

โœง ๐—›๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฑ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—–๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น
๏ฟซ Base material and weld hardness must be kept below 22 HRC as per NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 to prevent hydrogen embrittlement issues.
๏ฟซ Low carbon equivalent (CEIIW < 0.43) needed to prevent hard microstructures in welds.

โœง ๐—–๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—–๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป
๏ฟซ Sulfur levels limited to 0.003% for plates, 0.01% for seamless tubulars as it affects susceptibility.
๏ฟซ Purity requirements placed on other elements like Si, P, Mn based on product form.

โœง ๐—™๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฅ๐—ฒ๐—พ๐˜‚๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐˜€ - Stringent welding procedures, post weld heat treatment PWHT, extensive NDT and hardness testing.


๐…๐ฅ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ž ๐’๐ฎ๐ซ๐Ÿ๐š๐œ๐ž ๐…๐ข๐ง๐ข๐ฌ๐ก๐ž๐ฌ

๏ฟซ ๐—™๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜€ are connecting elements used to join piping, valves, pumps and other components in process piping systems.
๏ฟซ ๐™๐™๐™š ๐™ข๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™›๐™–๐™˜๐™š๐™จ ๐™ค๐™› ๐™›๐™ก๐™–๐™ฃ๐™œ๐™š๐™จ must be properly prepared to allow gaskets to seal effectively.

๐—–๐—ผ๐—บ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐˜€๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐—ณ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ฒ๐˜€:
1-๐™Ž๐™ข๐™ค๐™ค๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™จ๐™:
โ•พ Achieved by machining with fine feed rates.
โ•พ Ideal for soft gaskets like PTFE that conform to surface.
โ•พ Provides excellent seal with minimal stress on gasket.

2-๐™Ž๐™ฅ๐™ž๐™ง๐™–๐™ก ๐™Ž๐™š๐™ง๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™™:
โ•พ Has a spiral pattern of concentric grooves cut at 45ยฐ angle.
โ•พ Provides gripping texture for gasket materials like compressed fiber. โ•พ Moderate roughness typically 125-500 microinches.

3-๐˜พ๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™Ž๐™š๐™ง๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™™:
โ•พ Has concentric grooves cut at 90ยฐ angles in a cross-hatched pattern. โ•พ Provides positive grip on gasket for firm seal.
โ•พ Used in low pressure applications.
โ•พ Groove depth is 1/64 inch with 1/32 inch spacing.

4-๐™Ž๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™˜๐™  ๐™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™จ๐™:
โ•พ A rough finish with coarse tooling marks in random directions.
โ•พ Provides tooth pattern to bite into gaskets.
โ•พ Has highest roughness of 500-1000 microinches.
โ•พ Used only with soft gaskets on low pressure or vacuum service.

"๐šƒ๐š‘๐šŽ ๐š๐š’๐š—๐š’๐šœ๐š‘ ๐šœ๐š‘๐š˜๐šž๐š•๐š ๐š–๐šŠ๐š๐šŒ๐š‘ ๐š๐šŠ๐šœ๐š”๐šŽ๐š ๐šœ๐š๐šข๐š•๐šŽ ๐šŠ๐š—๐š ๐šœ๐šข๐šœ๐š๐šŽ๐š– ๐š™๐š›๐šŽ๐šœ๐šœ๐šž๐š›๐šŽ ๐š›๐šŽ๐šš๐šž๐š’๐š›๐šŽ๐š–๐šŽ๐š—๐š๐šœ๏ผŽ"




๐‚๐ซ๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ซ ๐‚๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ค๐ฌ ๐ข๐ง ๐–๐ž๐ฅ๐๐ฌ

๏ฟซ During welding, an arc melts base metal to create a liquid weld pool that solidifies to form the weld bead.
๏ฟซ At the end of the weld, the last bit of weld pool leaves behind a depression called the weld ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ง.

๐—ช๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—”๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—–๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—–๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ๐˜€?
Crater cracks are cracks that form in the weld crater at the end of a weld bead, look like cracks extending inwards from the rim of the weld crater.
๐™๐™๐™š๐™ฎ ๐™–๐™ง๐™š ๐™˜๐™–๐™ช๐™จ๐™š๐™™ ๐™—๐™ฎ:
๏ฟซ High residual stresses as the weld metal shrinks and cools
๏ฟซ Insufficient filler metal to overcome shrinkage
๏ฟซ Rapid cooling and solidification
๐˜พ๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ง ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™˜๐™ ๐™จ ๐™–๐™˜๐™ฉ ๐™–๐™จ ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™จ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™ง๐™จ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™˜๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™œ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™ค ๐™ก๐™–๐™ง๐™œ๐™š๐™ง ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™˜๐™ ๐™จ.

๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—–๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—–๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ๐˜€:
๏ฟซ Pause for 2-3 seconds before stopping arc to allow crater filling
๏ฟซ Backstep or reverse weld direction at end
๏ฟซ Optimize arc voltage, current, speed and filler addition

๐˜ผ๐™‹๐™„ 1104 ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ซ๐™ž๐™™๐™š๐™จ ๐™ก๐™ž๐™ข๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™จ ๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™˜๐™˜๐™š๐™ฅ๐™ฉ๐™–๐™—๐™ก๐™š ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ง ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™˜๐™  ๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฏ๐™š ๐™ค๐™› ๐™ก๐™š๐™จ๐™จ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™–๐™ฃ 4 ๐™ข๐™ข.


๐ŸŒก๏ธ๐Ÿ”ฅ๐”๐ง๐๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ง๐๐ข๐ง๐  ๐‡๐ž๐š๐ญ ๐“๐ซ๐š๐ง๐ฌ๐Ÿ๐ž๐ซ: ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง, ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ฏ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง, ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‘๐š๐๐ข๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐Ÿ”ฅ๐ŸŒก๏ธ

๐Ÿ”น ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: This heat transfer mechanism occurs within solids or between solids in contact. It involves the direct molecular interactions, where heat energy is transferred from higher-energy molecules to lower-energy molecules through collisions. Think of a metal rod being heated at one endโ€”the heat travels through the rod without the material itself moving. Materials like metals are excellent conductors, while insulators impede heat transfer.

๐Ÿ”น ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ฏ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Unlike conduction, convection involves the transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid (liquid or gas). When a fluid is heated, it becomes less dense and rises, while the cooler, denser fluid descends. This creates a circulating motion called convection currents. Natural convection occurs due to density differences caused by temperature variations, while forced convection involves using fans or pumps to move the fluid. Convection plays a significant role in processes like boili


๐‚๐š๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐œ ๐‚๐จ๐ซ๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐ข๐ง ๐๐จ๐ข๐ฅ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ

[ฬฒฬ…๐—–๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—–๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐— ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ถ๐˜€๐—บ]
๏ฟซ In boilers, ๐™˜๐™–๐™ช๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™จ๐™ค๐™™๐™– is sometimes added to prevent scaling.
But it can deposit on metal surfaces when water evaporates, concentrating in cracks and gaps.
๐˜พ๐™–๐™ช๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™จ๐™ช๐™—๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™š ๐™–๐™ง๐™š ๐™๐™ž๐™œ๐™๐™ก๐™ฎ ๐™–๐™ก๐™ ๐™–๐™ก๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™š ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™ฎ ๐™๐™ž๐™œ๐™ ๐™‹๐™ƒ.
๏ฟซ The caustic reacts with the protective magnetite layer on carbon steel, causing dissolution and thinning.
๐˜พ๐™๐™š๐™ข๐™ž๐™˜๐™–๐™ก ๐™๐™š๐™–๐™˜๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ
The ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) can react further with caustic to form sodium ferroate (NaFeO2) or sodium ferroite (Na2FeO2).
Fe3O4 + 4NaOH โ†’ 2NaFeO2 + Na2FeO2 + 2H2O
2NaOH + Fe โ†’ Na2FeO2 + H2

๏ฟซ The hydroxide salts left behind also create stresses in the steel leading to caustic cracking.
๏ฟซ Alkaline water enters cracks by capillary action, depositing salts through evaporation and causing further corrosion.
๏ฟซ This wastage mechanism causes general thinning and pitting corrosion damage on steel surfaces exposed to caustic.
๏ฟซ Caustic pe*******on can also cause hydrogen embrittlement and eventual cracking due to hydrogen absorption into the steel.
This form of attack is called ๐™˜๐™–๐™ช๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™จ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ง๐™ง๐™ค๐™จ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™˜๐™ง๐™–๐™˜๐™ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ (๐˜พ๐™Ž๐˜พ๐˜พ).

[ฬฒฬ…๐—–๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—–๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—–๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป]
๏ฟซ Monitor and control boiler feedwater pH and caustic soda levels
๏ฟซ Operate equipment at controlled temperatures and pH if caustic deposits are present
๏ฟซ Remove deposits through cleaning
๏ฟซ Manage stresses on equipment
๏ฟซ Avoid alkali use and instead utilize softening reagents


Scanning Techniques for PAUT

PAUT for welds can be performed using different scanning techniques. One common approach is the linear scanning technique, where the probe is moved along the length of the weld to cover the entire weld volume. Sector scanning is another technique that involves scanning the probe in a circular or sector-shaped pattern around the weld. These scanning techniques allow for comprehensive coverage and detection of defects.




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ุฑูˆุถุฉ ุฃุฑูŠุงู ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ Aryaf mustaqbal ุฑูˆุถุฉ ุฃุฑูŠุงู ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ Aryaf mustaqbal
ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุฃู…ูŠุฑ ู…ู‚ุฑู† ุจู† ุนุจุฏุงู„ุนุฒูŠุฒ
Jubail, 46423

ุฑูˆุถุฉ ูˆุญุถุงู†ุฉ ุฃุฑูŠุงู ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ุจู„ ู‡ูŠ ู…ู†ุดุฃุฉ ุชุนู„ูŠู…ูŠุฉ ุฎุงุตุฉ ุชู‡ุฏู ?

Nebosh Neom Nebosh Neom
Street Al Mashoor

Hi everyone if you are looking for any kind of Safety Certificate or if you Need Help in Nebosh Exam

Nurturing Leadership Nurturing Leadership
Jubail, 31951