Control and Instrumentation

Covers all aspects of the data acquisition system from design and specification to programming.

Operating as usual

06/01/2024

ایک انتہائی ضروری اعلان
شدید سردی اور دھند کی وجہ سے خوراک نہ ملنے کی وجہ سے پرندے بہت ہی تکلیف میں ہے اور درجنوں مر بھی رہے ہیں. لہذا مہربانی فرما کر اپنی گھر کی دیواروں پر چھتوں پر اور گھر کی ایسی محفوظ جگہ جہاں پرندے آتے جاتے رہتے ہو گندم اور ہر قسم کی خوراک جو وہ کھا سکے اللہ کی رضا کیلئے ڈال دیا کریں تاکہ اللہ تعالی کی رحمت بھی ہماری طرف متوجہ ہو۔

جتنا بھی ہو سکے پیغام لوگوں تک پہنچائیں.

06/01/2024
Photos from Control and Instrumentation's post 31/07/2023

Some basic laws.

28/07/2023

May Allah Almighty protect us from all unfortunate situations.

Photos from Control and Instrumentation's post 20/07/2023

To rebuild the 6-port and 10-port valves of the GC770XA C6+, you should refer to the manufacturer's official documentation, such as the instrument's user manual, service manual, or technical support resources. These documents will provide step-by-step instructions, safety precautions, and guidelines for performing maintenance tasks and rebuilding valves however a general outline, the procedure for rebuilding valves in gas chromatographs may involve the following steps:

• Safety Precautions: Before starting any maintenance task, make sure the instrument is turned off and disconnected from power sources. Follow all safety guidelines and wear appropriate personal protective equipment.

• Accessing the Valves: Depending on the instrument's design, you may need to remove the instrument covers or panels to access the valves.

• Document the Configuration: Take pictures or notes of the valve's current configuration, tubing connections, and orientation to ensure you can reassemble them correctly later.

• Disassemble the Valve: Carefully disassemble the valve, following the instructions provided in the documentation. Keep track of all the components you remove.

• Cleaning and Inspection: Thoroughly clean the valve components and inspect them for signs of wear, damage, or contamination.

• Replacement Parts: If any parts are damaged or worn out, obtain genuine replacement parts from the manufacturer or authorized supplier.

• Reassembly: Reassemble the valve components in the correct order and orientation, following the manufacturer's guidelines. For the 6 port valve 20 Ftlb force is required and for 10 ports valve 30 ftlb force is required to tight the bolt.

• Leak Check: Perform a leak check to ensure that all connections are tight and secure.

• Functional Testing: After reassembling the valve, conduct functional testing to ensure it operates properly. This may involve injecting known standard samples and verifying the chromatographic performance.

• Calibration: If required, recalibrate the instrument following the manufacturer's calibration procedures.

• Documentation: Keep a detailed record of the maintenance performed, including date, task description, and any replacement parts used.

Always follow the manufacturer's guidelines and recommendations when performing maintenance tasks on sensitive laboratory equipment like gas chromatographs to maintain accuracy and instrument performance.

13/07/2023

Successfully completing the training of the Gas Chromatograph GC770XA! The GC770XA is a highly advanced analytical instrument used in gas chromatography, a technique used to separate and analyze the components of complex mixtures.

Gas chromatography involves the vaporization of a sample and its injection into the GC770XA instrument. The sample is carried by an inert gas, called the mobile phase or carrier gas, through a column that contains a stationary phase. The separation of the sample components occurs based on their different interactions with the stationary phase.

Here are some key points regarding the GC770XA and its training:

Instrument Overview: The GC770XA is a specific model of gas chromatograph designed for various applications, such as environmental analysis, petrochemical analysis, pharmaceutical analysis, and more. It consists of several components, including an injector, a column oven, a detector, and a data acquisition system.

Training Objectives: The training likely involved familiarizing yourself with the instrument's hardware, software, and operating procedures. You may have learned about instrument setup, method development, calibration, sample preparation, troubleshooting, and data analysis.

Instrument Setup: During training, you would have learned how to prepare the instrument for analysis. This includes ensuring proper connections, verifying gas supplies, setting appropriate temperature parameters for the column oven, and ensuring proper functioning of detectors.

Method Development: The GC770XA offers various parameters and settings that can be optimized for specific analytical methods. You would have learned how to develop and optimize methods to achieve the desired separation and detection of target analytes in different sample matrices.

Calibration and Quality Control: Calibration is a crucial step in gas chromatography. You would have learned how to calibrate the instrument using appropriate standards and how to perform quality control checks to ensure the instrument's accuracy and precision.

Sample Preparation: In gas chromatography, proper sample preparation is essential to obtain accurate and reliable results. You would have learned about various sample preparation techniques, such as sample extraction, derivatization, and concentration, depending on the nature of the analytes and the sample matrix.

Troubleshooting: Gas chromatographs can encounter issues during operation. As part of your training, you would have gained knowledge and practical skills to identify and troubleshoot common problems that may arise during analysis, such as baseline shifts, peak broadening, or detector issues.

Data Analysis: The GC770XA generates data outputs in the form of chromatograms. You would have learned how to interpret and analyze these chromatograms using specialized software. This involves peak identification, quantification, integration, and reporting of results.

Overall, the successful completion of the training for the GC770XA indicates that you have acquired the necessary knowledge and skills to operate and utilize this sophisticated gas chromatograph for various analytical purposes. It opens up opportunities for you to conduct accurate and reliable analyses in your field of work, contributing to research, quality control, or process optimization.

30/03/2023

Corona Power Pvt Limited

12/03/2023

PLC Programming Techniques.

[email protected]
PLC programing Techniques

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programming techniques refer to the strategies and methods used to write effective and efficient programs for controlling industrial processes using PLCs. Here are some of the commonly used PLC programming techniques:

Modular Programming: This technique involves dividing the program into smaller, more manageable modules, each responsible for a specific task. This makes it easier to develop, test, and maintain the program.

Structured Text (ST): ST is a programming language that uses text-based instructions to define program logic. It is similar to Pascal and is ideal for complex programming tasks.

Function Block Diagram (FBD): FBD is a graphical programming language that uses blocks to represent functions and logical relationships. It is easy to understand and use, making it ideal for beginners.

Sequential Function Chart (SFC): SFC is a graphical programming language that uses a flowchart-like representation of the process. It is ideal for complex processes with multiple steps and stages.

Ladder Diagram (LD): LD is a graphical programming language that uses ladder-like diagrams to represent the logical sequence of the process. It is easy to understand and widely used in industrial automation.

State Logic Diagram (SLD): SLD is a graphical programming language that represents the process as a series of states and transitions. It is ideal for processes that require complex state-based logic.

Data Handling: Effective data handling techniques are essential for optimizing the performance of a PLC program. These techniques include using data blocks, data logging, and data analysis tools.

Debugging and Testing: Debugging and testing are critical PLC programming techniques that help to identify and fix errors in the program. These techniques include using simulation tools, testing the program in real-time, and monitoring the program's performance.

By using these techniques, PLC programmers can write efficient and effective programs that can control industrial processes with greater accuracy and reliability.

10/03/2023

PID Controller

Introduction to PID Controllers:

A PID controller is a device used in industrial control systems to regulate the output of a process. The acronym PID stands for proportional, integral, and derivative, which are the three control parameters used in a PID controller. The PID controller operates by comparing the actual output of the process with a desired setpoint and then adjusting the control parameters to minimize the difference between the two. This process is known as feedback control.

Proportional Control:

Proportional control is the simplest form of feedback control used in a PID controller. In this type of control, the output of the controller is directly proportional to the error between the actual output and the desired setpoint. The proportional gain, represented by the letter "Kp," is the constant of proportionality that relates the output of the controller to the error.

Mathematically, the output of the proportional controller is given by:

Output = Kp x Error

Where Error = Setpoint - Actual Output

The proportional control is effective at reducing the steady-state error, but it can lead to oscillations in the system if the gain is too high.

Integral Control:

Integral control is used to eliminate the steady-state error in a system. In this type of control, the output of the controller is proportional to the accumulated error over time. The integral gain, represented by the letter "Ki," is the constant of proportionality that relates the output of the controller to the integrated error.

Mathematically, the output of the integral controller is given by:

Output = Ki x ∫(Error dt)

Where Error = Setpoint - Actual Output and ∫(Error dt) is the integral of the error over time.

The integral control is effective at reducing the steady-state error, but it can lead to overshoot and instability if the gain is too high.

Derivative Control:

Derivative control is used to reduce the rate of change of the error in a system. In this type of control, the output of the controller is proportional to the rate of change of the error. The derivative gain, represented by the letter "Kd," is the constant of proportionality that relates the output of the controller to the rate of change of the error.

Mathematically, the output of the derivative controller is given by:

Output = Kd x d(Error)/dt

Where Error = Setpoint - Actual Output and d(Error)/dt is the derivative of the error with respect to time.

The derivative control is effective at reducing overshoot and instability, but it can amplify noise in the system if the gain is too high.

PID Control:

A PID controller combines proportional, integral, and derivative control to achieve the desired output of a process. The output of a PID controller is given by:

Output = Kp x Error + Ki x ∫(Error dt) + Kd x d(Error)/dt

Where Error = Setpoint - Actual Output

The proportional control provides an immediate response to the error, the integral control eliminates steady-state error, and the derivative control reduces overshoot and instability.

PID Tuning:

PID controllers require tuning to achieve optimal performance. The tuning involves adjusting the gain values of the proportional, integral, and derivative control parameters to achieve the desired response of the process. The tuning process involves several methods, including manual tuning, Ziegler-Nichols method, and Cohen-Coon method.

Conclusion:

PID controllers are an essential component of industrial control systems. They use proportional, integral, and derivative control to regulate the output of a process. PID controllers require tuning to achieve optimal performance. The tuning involves adjusting the gain values of the proportional, integral, and derivative control parameters to achieve the desired response of the process.

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Night View of Central Processing Facility MOL Pakistan Oil and gas.

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Oil and Gas
&gas



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Before and After Workout without any communication loss.






11/07/2020

Working Principle of Radar Type Level Measurement

16/03/2020

Working Principle of Control Valve


Photos from Control and Instrumentation's post 03/03/2020

Maintenance of Antifreeze Regulator


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ACS Wellhead Control Panel



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Vx Spectra Schlumberger Multi Phase Flow Transmitter




03/03/2020

Remote Telemetry Unit

13/10/2019

Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

12/10/2019

Q. What is scaffolding?

Ans.....Scaffolding is a temporary working platform to provide supports both men and materials for working place. It is used in maintenance, construction and demolition work etc.

2..Types of scaffoldings:-

1.Permanent scaffolding
2. Hanging scaffolding
3.Suspended scaffolding
4.Mobil scaffolding.

Q. What are the points to be checked while green tagging erected scaffolding?

Ans...Before using of scaffold check the tag (7 days validity). Green tag we can use the scaffold and Red tag for not use and Yellow tag use only for scaffolding works.
1.Level and firmness of the ground.
2.Sole plate
3. Base plate
4.Standards
5. Ledger
6.Transom
7.Couplers
8.Planks (boards)
9. Toe boards
10.Braising
11.Guard rails
12. Mid rail
13.Out riggers
14. Ladders


Q. What is Potential Hazards of scaffolding?
1. Collapse of Scaffolding.
2.Falling from height.
3.Falling object.
4.Slip & Trip hazards.
5.Pinch point hazards / Sharp edges
6.Opening without guardrail.
7.Scaffold er****on during storm or high winds, raining and poor visibility.
8.Blocking emergency access and walkways

Q. What is the cause of scaffolding failure?
1. Slipping of unsecured ladder.
2.Use of unsuitable scaffold or faulty materials.
3. Inadequate or irregular platform width.
4.Omission of guard rails or toe boards.
5. Failure to proper secure the scaffold to the building or to brace it adequately.
6.Overloading on the scaffold platforms.

Q. What is the precaution during scaffolding er****on?
1.Scaffolding er****on, dismantling should be done under the supervision of a COMPETENT PERSON (Scaffolding Supervisor).
2.„Red Tag‟ means Danger “do not use” and Green Tag means “scaffold complete-ready for use” when completed.
3.Gap between boards/planks should be 1 inch (25mm).
4.Top guardrail, midrail and toe board should be provided.
5.Guard rails and Toa boards shall be fitted to the inside of standards.
6.Guard rail should have a height between 915 mm (0.9 m or 90 cm or 3‟ feet) to 1143 mm (1.15 m or 3‟ 9”)
7.Toe board should be 6” (15 cm) high and secured with toe board clips.
8.If scaffold to be erected on soft ground should be used sole plate.
9.Worker shall be not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds or poor visibility.
10.Sole plate shall extend under at least two standards.
11. Base plates with screw jacks should be proper scaffold leveling adjustment.
12.All standard shall be vertical.
13.Ledgers shall be securely fixed to standards couplers.
14.Scaffolds should be properly braced by cross bracing or diagonal braces or both for securing vertical members together.
15.Access ladder must be provided for any platform & clamped with scaffold structure.
16.Ladder should be 4:1 ratio and angle 750.
17.Ladder should be rise 1 meter (42 inch) above from the landing place/platform.
18.Scaffold should be not obstruct access to/from any fire fighting equipment / emergency equipment, operating area equipment, instrument and control panels, ladders, stairways etc.
19.Scaffold platform opening should be secured with guardrail and sign board.
20. All scaffolding couplers should be tightened.

10/10/2019

What is Cascade Control?

In a cascade control arrangement, there are two (or more) controllers of which one controller’s output drives the set point of another controller.

For example: a level controller driving the set point of a flow controller to keep the level at its set point. The flow controller, in turn, drives a control valve to match the flow with the set point the level controller is requesting.

The controller driving the set point (the level controller in the example ) is called the primary, outer, or master controller.

The controller receiving the set point (flow controller in the example) is called the secondary, inner or slave controller.

10/10/2019

Control Valve internal parts

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Wellhead Control Panel Drawing

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Master Flow Auto Choke

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Pressure Regulator Valve......

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Temperature transmiter

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