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04/05/2023

Article
Article
Article হলো Determiner এর একটি আলোচ্য বিষয় । a, an, এবং the কে article বলা হয়। পরীক্ষায় article এর উত্তরের জন্য সাধারণত চারটি অপশন থাকে। সেগুলো হলোঃ a, an, the এবং [×] । ক্রস চিহ্ন ব্যবহার করা হয় zero article এর পরিবর্তে।
Zero article: যেখানে কোন article ব্যবহার করা হয় না বা যায় না।
Question : কোন part of speech এবং phrase এর পূর্বে article বসে।
Ans: noun এবং noun phrase এর পূর্বে।
Article এর অবস্থানঃ noun/noun phrase এর পূর্বে বসে। তাই article ব্যবহার করার পূর্বে noun/noun phrase চিহ্নিত করা আবশ্যক।
example:
1. a/an/the + noun
A student, an engineer, the tiger, an orange, an umbrella
2. Noun phrase
A student > a good student > a very good student.
An engineer > an experienced engineer > a highly experienced engineer.
A story > an interesting story > a very interesting story.

উদাহরণগুলো থেকে আমরা দেখতে পায় noun phrase এর পূর্বে article ব্যবহার করা হয় মূলত noun দেখে। noun কে বাদ দিলে যে অবশিষ্ট অংশ থাকে তা কোন স্বার্থক অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারে না। চলুন উপরের উদাহরণগুলোকে বিশ্লেষণ করে দেখি।
A student > a good student > a very good student.
Noun কে বাদ দিলে কি হয়?
A good
A very good

An engineer > an experienced engineer > a highly experienced engineer.
An experienced
A highly experienced

A story > an interesting story > a very interesting story.
An interesting
A very interesting
এগুলো কোন স্বার্থক অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারছে না।
Question : সকল noun এর পূর্বেই কি ব্যবহার করা হয়?
Answer: না সকল noun এর পূর্বে article ব্যবহার করা হয় না।
যেহেতু সকল noun এর পূর্বে article বসে না। তাই noun সম্পর্কে বিস্তারিত জানা প্রয়োজন। noun এর প্রকারভেদ এবং ব্যবহার জানা জরুরী। একটি noun কোন প্রকারের তা চিনতে পারলে আমরা সঠিকভাবে article ব্যবহার করতে সক্ষম হবো। এটা নিয়ে নিন্মে বিস্তারিত আলোচনা করবো।

Article দুই প্রকারঃ
Indefinite article: a, an. Indefinite শব্দের অর্থ অনির্দিষ্ট বা অনিশ্চিত। অর্থাৎ নির্দিষ্ট বা নিশ্চিত নয় এমন। noun কে singular এবং countable দিয়ে প্রশ্ন করলে যদি দুটির উত্তরেই yes হয় তাহলে উক্ত noun এর পূর্বে a/an বসে।
Polash is a boy.
Fahim is a painter.
A good student does his lesson regularly.
I have an umbrella.
She has read an interesting book.

A/An এর ব্যবহারঃ আমরা যে শব্দের পূর্বে article ব্যবহার করবো সেটি উচ্চারনে যদি consonant sound হয় তাহলে A ব্যবহার করবো।আর যদি vowel sound হয় তাহলে an ব্যবহার করবো। যেমনঃ ___ chair, _____student,
_____ country. _______ good boy. ____ orange.
Answer: A chair, A student, A country. A good boy.
_____orange. _____umbrella. _____honest person.

An orange. An umbrella. An honest person.
মনে রাখা জরুরী: একটি শব্দ consonant দিয়ে শুরু হতে পারে কিন্ত তার উচ্চারন যদি vowel sound হয় তাহলে সেই শব্দের an পূর্বে ব্যবহার করতে হবে। যেমনঃ
An heir.
An honest person.
An hour.
An honour.
An x-ray
আবার একটি শব্দ vowel দিয়ে শুরু হতে পারে কিন্ত তার উচ্চারন যদি consonant sound হয় তাহলে সেই শব্দের a পূর্বে ব্যবহার করতে হবে। যেমনঃ
A university.
A useful instrument.
A user.
A European country.
A one eyed person.
Definite article: the
The ব্যবহারে তিনটি অবস্থা স্বরণ রাখতে হবেঃ
1. যে noun এর জন্য আমরা Article ব্যবহার করবো সেটি সম্পর্কে বক্তা এবং শ্রোতা উভয়জনই যদি অবগত থাকেন বা জানেন তাহলে the হবে। আর যদি না জানেন তাহলে a/an হবে।
Give me the pen.
Shut the door.
Would you mind caring the bag.
2. এমন একটি কথা বা আলোচনা হচ্ছে যা সম্পর্কে পূর্বে কথা বা আলোচনা করা হয়েছে তার পূর্বে the বসে। ।
Is that the boy you telling me about?
I found a beautiful dog. I would like to give Jui the cat.
3. একটি বিষয় নিয়ে কথা হচ্ছে যেটি একটিই হয় দ্বিতীয়টি হয়না তার পূর্বে the বসে। যেমনঃ the earth. The moon. The Taj Mahal.
সাধারন একটি বিষয়, বস্তু, বা প্রাণী নিয়ে
Method 1
Countable
Uncountable
Countable Nouns: যে noun গুলোকে আমরা গগনা করতে পারি তাই Countable Noun. Countable Nouns গুলোকে আমরা পৃথক করতে পারি। যেমনঃ Pen, country, game, river. Book
A book. Two books. Three books. Ten books.
Singular Plural
A pen Five pens
A river Many rivers
A country Ten countries.
An umbrella Two umbrellas

Rule: noun কে singular এবং countable দিয়ে প্রশ্ন করলে যদি দুটির উত্তরেই yes হয় তাহলে উক্ত noun এর পূর্বে a/an বসে।
প্রশ্ন করুনঃ noun টি কি countable?
আবার noun টি কি singular?
যদি দুটির উত্তরেই yes হয় তাহলে উক্ত noun এর পূর্বে a/an ব্যবহার করুন।


1. There is _____ book in the table.
2. Rana has _____ expensive car.
3. _____ liar is disliked by all.
4. The parliament house of Bangladesh is ____ highly expensive building.
5. Ours is ____ independent country.
6. Mr. Bright is ____ European.
7. Bangladesh is ____ independent country.

Uncountable nouns: যে noun গুলোকে আমরা গগনা করতে পারিনা বা করি না তাই uncountable Noun. uncountable Noun এর পুর্বে article বসেনা ।
1. ____ Water is an important element.
2. _____ Honesty is the best policy.
3. ______ Poverty is one of our main problems.
4. ___ Truthfulness is a noble virtue.
5. ______ Beauty is an essential object of art.
6. _____ Rice is our main food.
ব্যতিক্রমঃ uncountable Noun এর পরে যদি of থাকে তাহলে uncountable Noun টির পুর্বে the ব্যবহার করতে হবে। structure: ______ uncountable Noun + of+……..
example:
Patriotism inspires a man to dedicate his life for ____ freedom of his country.
A true thinks for _____ betterment of his

Method 2
Proper: (নামবাচক) কোন কিছুর বিশেষ নাম কেই proper noun বলে । এই noun কে আমরা নাম ধরে ডাকতে পারি। সাধারণত কোন ব্যক্তি, স্থান, বা বস্তুর বিশেষ নাম কে বোঝাই । Proper noun এর পুর্বে Article বসে না। যেমনঃ
___ Shakib AL Hasan is a cricketer.
_____ Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh.
Exception :

কোন ব্যক্তিকে না বুঝিয়ে যদি তার গুনকে বোঝায় তাহলে সেই ব্যক্তির নামের পূর্বে article ব্যবহার করা হয়। যেমনঃ
I see you are a Mashrafee.
I see you are a Nazrul.
Nazrul is the Byron of Bengali literature.

Person _____ adjective থাকলে the হবে।
Alexander the Great
Akbar the great
Mother Teresa the kind

Common noun : কোন কিছুর সাধারন নাম কে common noun বলে।
____ Kona is a girl.

____Cricket is a game.
_____ Bangladesh is an independent country.
_____ Polash is a student.
_____ Bangla is a language.
_____ Paris is a city.
_____ Nazrul is a writer.

ব্যতিক্রমঃ 1: man এবং woman দ্বারা যদি জাতি বোঝায় তাহলে এদের পুর্বে article বসে না। যেমনঃ
___ Man is mortal.
____Woman is fond of ornaments.
ব্যতিক্রমঃ2:

Michael Madhu
Method 3
Concrete
Abstract
Many _____ singular noun
Answer: a/an
1. Many _____ visitor comes to visit The parliament house of Bangladesh everyday.
2. Many ____ man is not conscious of the importance of diligence.
Many _____ plural noun = [×]
1. Many _____ visitors come to visit The parliament house of Bangladesh everyday.
2. Many ____ men are not conscious of the importance of diligence.
Answer: [×]
The + adjective = NP
The poor, the rich, the oppressed, the religious, the ruled, the honest, the bookish
___ industrious can prosper in life.

Holy books এর পূর্বে the বসে
The Quran, the Bible
Epics:
The Iliad, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, The Shahnama
Language and Nationality
কিছু ভাষা এবং জাতির নাম বা জাতীয় পরিচয় আছে যেগুলো একই। তাই সেইসব শব্দ থাকলে শব্দটি ভাষা নাকি কোনো ভাষার লোক বা জাতীয়তা বোঝাচ্ছে তা চিহ্নিত করতে হবে।
ভাষা হলে (×) হবে।
English is an international language.
The book is written in Greek.
কোনো ভাষার লোককে বোঝালে a/an হবে।
Mr. William is an English.
Hector was a Greek.
জাতীয়তা বোঝালে a/an হবে।
সমগ্র জাতিকে বোজালে the হবে।
A great many, a number of, a lot of, a good number of, a large number of, a few, a little, a bit of, a good deal of, a great deal of, a large amount of, a couple of, a majority of, a result, as a consequence, tell a lie, on the hand, on the contrary, in the long run, speak the truth, in the same way, at the same time, at the very beginning,



Go for a walk, go for a swim, go for a drive,
have a look, have a try, have a go, have a wash,
Some important phrases:
make a noise, have a weakness, have a headache, have a stomach ache, have a thirst, have a great thirst, fly into a rage, run a temperature,

as a result, As a consequence, tell a lie, speak the truth, tell the truth, on the other hand, On the contrary, in the same way, at the same time, at the very beginning, play a vital role, play an important role, the key to......... a great many, from down to dusk , from an early age, Go a long way, the rest, the rest of,
In a body, in a hurry, in a nutshell, in a fix, in a temper, to take an interest, quite a bit.
Holly books
The Quran, the Bible, the Mahabharata, the Iliad, the shahnama, Ramayan,

South, north, east, West,
Southern, northern, eastern, western
By the gallon, by the litre, By the dozen, by the hour,

Single designation
The Prime Minister, the chairman, the principal, the headmaster, the manager,

Quite +a/an + noun/ noun phrase
He’s quite a good player.
she is quite a beauty.
• It's quite a small room.
• We had to wait quite a long time.
• This is quite a different problem.
• She's quite a beauty.
• We found it quite a change when we moved to London.
• He's quite the little gentleman, isn't he?
Rather + a/an noun/ noun phrase
It was rather a difficult question.
Ronnie is rather an honest man.
She worked as a secretary, or rather, a personal assistant.
But + a/an + noun/ noun phrase
You are but a child.
He is but a liar.

12/04/2023

Preposition

Natural disaster has occurred throughout the world (a)______recent years. The reason behind this is greenhouse effect or warming(b)______the air around the earth. Global warming is melting the huge ice (c)______the polar regions and (d)______the peaks (e)______the mountains. Consequently, the level (f) _____sea water has alarmingly increased. Cyclones and tidal bores are inundating and destroying the coastal regions (g)_____a large extent. Climatologists believe that (h)______the last 185 years 99 cyclones hit the coastal areas and offshore islands (i) _____our country causing irrecoverable loss (j) _____life and properties.
a) In
b) Of phrase
c) In
d) On
e) Of phrase
f) Of phrase
g) To: To a large extent, to some extent, to a certain extent.
h) In
i) Of phrase
j) To

12/04/2023

Preposition

A good boy is always attentive (a) ________his studies. He concentrates (b)______his studies very much. He listens (c) ______ his teachers' advice. He is respectful (d) ______his superiors. He does not quarrel(e)______anyone. He behaves well (f) ______ everyone. Nobody is annoyed (g)______his behaviour. He is true(h) ______his words. He is dear (i)______all. Everybody prays(i)_____him.

a) To: Attentive to/listen to/inattentive to/indifferent to/callous to/blind to

b) On: Concentrate on somebody/something

c) To: Listen to somebody/something

d) To: Respectful to somebody/something. But respect for somebody/something

e) With: Quarrel with somebody about/over something

f) With:

g) At: Annoyed at something
Feeling
Annoyed/irritated/angry with somebody
Annoyed/irritated/angry/surprised/marveled/shocked at something

h) To: True to one’s word.

i) To

j) For: Pray for somebody/something

12/04/2023

Preposition

A teacher is an architect of a nation. He plays an important role in building (a)________an educated nation. He dispels the darkness of ignorance (b) _______the lot of a nation. He is an actor, so to speak. He has to suit his act according (c) ______the need of his audience which is his class. He is able to hold the attention and interest (d)______his students. he is a clear speaker (e) ______good, strong pleasing voice which is (f)_______his control. He does not sit motionless before his class. He makes lessons interesting(g)_______the students. A good teacher discovers the treasure hidden (h)_______each student. He also wants the students happy and (i)_______this he keeps them busy. A good teacher never hankers(j)______money.

a) Up: Build up: Create

b) From: Dispel something from something
Remove something from something
Eradicate something from something

c) To: According to/in accordance with

d) Of phrase

e) With

f) Under: Under control/ under pressure

g) To/for

h) Inside

i) For

j) After: Hanker after /run after/aspire after

12/04/2023

Preposition

A pious man is absorbed (a) _______ meditation. He has firm faith (b)_______the Almighty. He abides(c) ______ the rules (d) _______religion. He is also very simple (e)______his ways of life. He clings(f)_____his faith. He knows that man is accountable(g)______the Almighty (h)______his action. So, he leads his life according (i) ______religion. He is not angry (j)_____anybody.

a) In: Absorb in something

b) In: Faith in Allah/God/somebody

c) By: Abide by rules/suggestion/advice

d) Of phrase

e) In

f) To: Cling to something or somebody= stick to something or somebody.

g) To: Account/accountable/responsible to Allah/God/somebody

h) For: Account/accountable/responsible for something

i) To: According to: In accordance with

j) With: Angry with somebody

12/04/2023

Preposition

An honest man is true (a)_____his word. He does not deviate (b)___the path of honesty. He knows that true happiness consists (c) _____honesty. So, he does not fall victim (d) _____greed. He does not hanker (e)_____money. An honest man abstains himself (f) _____corruption. He does not associate(g) ______corrupt people. He derives pleasure(h)_____good activities. He does not aspire (i)_____wealth and always keeps himself aloof (j)______greedy people.

a) To: True to one’s word.

b) From: Deviate from something or somebody.

c) In: Consist of number. But consist in something

d) To: Fall victim to something

e) After: Hanker after/run after/aspire after

f) From: Abstain from somebody or something
Abstain somebody or something from somebody or something

g) With: Associated with somebody = mix with somebody

h) From: Derive from somebody or something

Derive somebody or something from something
i) After: Aspire after/run after/hanker after

j) From: Keep someone aloof from something

12/04/2023

Preposition

Corruption is a curse (a)_______a nation. It is a great hindrance (b)_____the development. (c)______ corrupted people, a nation will surely sink (d) ______oblivion. Corrupted people are hated by all. The common people have no respect (e)______them. They are devoid (f)______honesty. They stick (g)______their evil activities. They do not abide (h)_______the social rules. Morality does not have any effect (i) ______them. They bring nothing for the nation. It is high time we stood(i)-them.

a) For

b) To: Hinderance to something

c) For

d) Into: Phrasal verb: Sink into oblivion

e) For: Respect for somebody /something

f) Of: Devoid of

g) To: Stick to, adhere to

h) By: Abide by rules/advice/suggestion

i) On: Effect/impact/influence on somebody or something

j) Against: Stand/struggle/fight against somebody or something

Stand/struggle/fight for somebody or something

The heroic sons of our country fought for independence against the Pakistani ruler.

12/04/2023

Preposition

Coleridge ‘poem, a ballad, narrates the harrowing sea-voyage (a)_____an old mariner who(b)______ one point (c)______his journey didn't have any water (d) _____drink because (e) ______a curse. Cursed or not. we know how important drinking water is (f) ______our life. We know we cannot survive without it. In fact two-thirds of our body is made up (g)_____water. Not for nothing is it said that the other name of water is life. Is there a crisis in our time (h)______regard to access to clean drinking water? The United Nations in a meeting on the eve of the new millennium identified the drinking water problem as one of the challenges (i)______the future. But do we need to worry (j)_____the problem as ours is a land of rivers and we have plenty of rainfall? Besides, we have a sea in our backyard too.

a) Of phrase

b) At: at one, some, this, etc. point
At one point he looked like winning. 2.Many people experience anxiety at some point in their lives.

c) Of: At one point of something/ at the point of something

d) To: ………….v1= to

e) Of: Because of/owing to/due to

f) In

g) Of: Be made up of

h) With: With/in regard to

i) Of phrase

j) About: Worry about somebody/something

12/04/2023

Preposition

A good student never learns things (a)____rote. He is very cautious (b)-_______his studies and always adheres(c)_____his lessons and texts. He does not learn (d) _______traditional guide books. He prepares notes(e)_______taking help (f)_____his teachers. He abides (g)_____his teachers advice and jots(h)_____their lectures. He makes the best use (i)_______his time and concentrate (j)________his studies according to his daily routine.

a) By: by rote/learn by heart

b) About: Cautious about somebody/something
Careful about somebody/something

c) To

d) From

e) By

f) Of

g) By: Abide by advice/suggestion /rules.
Abide in place=live in
Abide with somebody: live With

h) Down: Jot down = write something very quickly

i) Of

j) On: Concentrate on/focus on

12/04/2023

Preposition

Man has made friendship (a)________trees. Trees play an important role (b)_____our life and economy. June and July are the best time (c)_______tree plantation. Tree plantation programme should be expanded (d) _______the remote corner of the country. Attempt should be made to make the illiterate aware (e)_______the importance of trees. They are a great source (f)______food and vitamins. We use them for various purposes. We cannot think of our homes, houses, residences etc without trees. Trees bear a great impact (g)_____the climate. If we destroy trees (h) _____random, one day the country will turn (I) _____a great desert. Trees save us (j)_______flood and many other natural calamities

a) With

b) In

c) For

d) To

e) Of: Aware of

f) Of

g) On: impact/influence/effect on somebody/something.

h) At: at random

i) Into: turn into: change into: convert into

j) From: save somebody/something from somebody/something
Prevent/ somebody/something from somebody/something
Protect somebody/something from somebody/something
Rescue somebody/something from somebody/something

12/04/2023

Preposition

Parents have desire (a)______bright future (b)________their children. They are ready to do anything which may be congenial (c)______the success(d) ______their children. Every success (e) _______their children makes them happy, and they become sanguine (f) _______their bright future. But then the children do not pay heed (g)______the suggestions (h)_______their parents and fail to move forward as the parents want. All their hopes end (i)________ smoke. So children must be cautious (j)________it.

a) For: desire for something

b) Of phrase

c) To: congenial to something

d) Of phrase

e) Of phrase

f) About: sanguine about something
Optimistic about something
Positive about something
Negative about something

g) To: pay heed to somebody/something
Listen to somebody/something

h) Of phrase

i) In: phrasal verb: end in smoke: come to nothing

j) About: cautious about somebody/ something
Careful about somebody/something

12/04/2023

Preposition

We want happiness (a)_______life. No one wants to live an unhappy life. But happiness depends greatly (b)________activities and attitude (c)_______life. If we are dishonest and do evil activities, we will never be able to lead a happy life. Again if we always hanker (d)_______ money or wealth, happiness will never be our company.(e)_______ the other hand, those who are honest. pious and satisfied (f)______ what they have, can enjoy happiness. Honest people never suffer (g) _______anxiety or incessant pain. They have an aim (h) ______ life (1) _____which they can attain peace. They are not afraid (j) _____ anything. And those who are not covetous for money or wealth can enjoy pure happiness.

a) In

b) On: depend on/rely on/dependent on/reliant on/ dependence on/reliance on something.

c) To: attitude to/towards to somebody/something. These societies have to change their attitudes towards women.

d) After: hanker after/run after/aspire after something. We should not run after money

e) On: on the other hand, on the contrary

f) With: satisfied/dissatisfied/contented/pleased/displeased/happy with somebody/something

g) From: suffer from

h) In

i) By/through

j) Of: afraid of/scared of/frightened of/nervous of somebody/something.

12/04/2023

Preposition

We know that smoking is prejudicial (a)________ health. It causes many fatal diseases. There is no remedy(b)______the disease. People are aware (c)______the matter. Yet they stick (d)_______this bad habit. Smoking is also injurious (e) ______ a passive smoker. Unfortunately, the smokers don't think (f) ______these passive smokers. They become the victims (g)______their whims. In this respect, children are the most sufferers. (h) ______some cases, they are made sufferers because (i) ______their parents.(j) ________them all smokers should think once again.

a) To: prejudicial to/harmful to/injurious to/detrimental to/hinderance to something

b) For: remedy for something/cure for something

c) Of: conscious of/unconscious of/ aware of/unaware of/ ignorant of something

d) To: stick to something: you should stick to your plan.
Adhere to something: you must adhere to the rules if you want to improve.

e) To: injurious to somebody/something

f) Of/about: think of /about somebody/something

g) Of: of phrase

h) In: in most cases/in many cases/in this case/in case

i) Of: because of/due to/ owing to

j) For

12/04/2023

Preposition

A pious man has firm faith (a)______Allah. He believes (b)______the sayings of the holy prophet (SM). He is not addicted (c)_______any evil. Rather he is devoted (d)_________ good deeds. He always thinks (e)_________ other's welfare. He is not harmful (f)_________anyone. He mixes (g)________ all. He leads his life according (h)_________the rules of religion. He values religion (i)________everything. He is very conscious (j)_______ his duties.

a) In: faith in somebody/something
Belief/believe in somebody/something
Confidence in somebody/ something

b) In: believe in somebody/something

c) To: addicted to something
Habituated to something
Accustomed to something
Used to something

d) To: Devoted to something
Dedicated to somebody/something

e) Of: think of somebody/something
f) To: harmful to /detrimental to/hinderance to/injurious to/prejudicial to somebody/something

g) With: mix with somebody: He mixed with people of all ages.

mix with something: Oil does not mix with water.
Mix A with B: I don’t like to mix business with pleasure.
Mix A into B: Mix the eggs into the flour.

h) To: according to/ in accordance with


i) Above: value somebody/something above somebody/something

j) Of: conscious of/unconscious of/ aware of/unaware of/ ignorant of something

07/04/2023

As (যেহেতু)....................., (সেহেতু)...........................
..........................As/since/because (যেহেতু/কারন ).....................

যেহেতু সে অসুস্থ ছিলো সেহেতু সে আসতে পারেনি।
As he was sick, he could not come.

যেহেতু সে পড়াশোনায় নিয়মিত সেহেতু সে পরীক্ষায় ভালো ফলাফল করবে।
Since he is regular in his studies, he will make a good result.

যেহেতু বাংলাদেশ কৃষি নির্ভরশীল সেহেতু আমাদের উচিত কৃষি ক্ষেত্রকে উন্নতি করা।

As Bangladesh is dependent on agriculture, we should improve our agricultural sector

more sentences with as and since

1. As I was walking to the park, I saw a group of kids playing.
2. Since it was raining outside, we decided to stay in and watch a movie.
3. As I had a lot of work to do, I couldn't attend the party.
4. Since the train was delayed, I was late for the meeting.
5. As I was driving to work, I got stuck in traffic.
6. Since it was his birthday, we threw him a surprise party.
7. As she was walking home from school, she found a lost puppy.
8. Since I had been studying all day, I took a break to watch TV.
9. As they had finished their homework, they went out to play.
10. Since it was a beautiful day, we went for a picnic in the park.
11. As I was reading the book, I came across a surprising twist.
12. Since he was feeling sick, he stayed home from work.
13. As we had already bought the tickets, we went to see the movie.
14. Since it was a long weekend, we went on a road trip.
15. As she was cooking dinner, she realized she was missing an ingredient.
16. Since he had been practicing for weeks, he nailed the performance.
17. As I was walking my dog, I met a new neighbor.
18. Since it was her anniversary, he surprised her with a romantic dinner.
19. As we had already visited the museum, we decided to explore the city instead.
20. Since it was getting late, we decided to call it a night.
21. As she was listening to music, she heard her favorite song come on.
22. Since he had been saving up, he finally bought his dream car.
23. As we had already finished our meal, we asked for the check.
24. Since it was a hot day, we went to the beach to cool off.
25. As I was cleaning my room, I found an old photograph.
26. Since he had missed the bus, he had to walk to work.
27. As we had already planned our trip, we just had to pack our bags.
28. Since it was a weekday, the gym was crowded.
29. As she was finishing up her project, she realized she had made a mistake.
30. Since he had been working hard, he was promoted to a higher position.

07/04/2023

English first paper
Topic: Passage

1. Read the passage and answer the following questions.

A plate of hot French fries and a huge burger with hot cheese oozing out of it, with a carbonated drink: looks like a treat! This calorie-rich junk food does look mouth-watering but is known to be nutritionally poor. Junk food or fast food has become an increasingly popular food choice. Ideally, junk foods are defined as processed foods with negligible nutrient value and are often high in salt, sugar and fat. But we often confuse fast foods with junk foods. How are they different? Or what is junk food really?
Junk foods are processed foods consisting of high calories, but that is considered only as a broad umbrella. These foods are prepared in a way that they look appealing and are enjoyable so you are chemically programmed to ask for more. `according to Dr. Sunali Sharma, a Dietician & Nutritionist, "Commercial products including salted snack foods, chewing gum, candy, sugary desserts, fried fast food, and sweetened carbonated beverages that have little or no nutritional value but are high in calories, salt, and fats may be considered junk foods. Though not all fast foods are junk foods, a great number of them are. For instance, a salad may be fast food but is definitely not junk food. Some foods like burgers, pizzas, and tacos may alternate between junk and healthy categories depending on the ingredients, calories and process of manufacturing."
Frequent consumption of junk food increases the intake of excess fat, simple carb0-. hydrates, and processed sugar which may lead to a higher risk of obesity and cardio-vascular diseases, among other chronic health problems. The resulting obesity may begin clogging up the arteries and lay the basis of an impending heart attack. It has also been suggested that eating junk food affects the brain in the same way as consuming addictive drugs. An addiction to junk food may even result in the rejection of healthier food options like fruits, vegetables, salads etc. leading to further lack of nourishment.

Word meaning and synonyms

Cheese: পনির
Ooze: চুইয়ে পড়া Leak, Trickle, Drip
Calorie rich: ক্যালরি সমৃদ্ধ
Mouthwatering: মুখে জল এনে দেয় এমন। লোভনীয় Delicious, Tasty, Lip-smacking, Appetizing
Nutritionally: পুষ্টিগতভাবে
Junk: বাতিল, পুরনো Rubbish, Trash, Debris
Junk food: food that is quick and easy to prepare and eat but that is thought to be bad for your health.
Ideally: আদর্শগতভাবে Idyllically
Processed: প্রক্রিয়াজাত Treated, prepared, conditioned, refined, artificial, manufactured,
Negligible নগণ্য insufficient, Unimportant, Small
Nutrient: পুষ্টিগত
Value: মান Worth, Usefulness, Benefit,
Confuse: গুলিয়ে ফেলা, বিভ্রান্ত করা, mix up, Mystify, Complicate, Obscure.
Consist: থাকা Contain, Comprise, be made up of,
Consider: বিবেচনা করা Regard as, Judge, Count
A broad umbrella: বিস্তৃত পরিসর বোঝাতে ব্যবহার করা হয়। A broad umbrella typically refers to a concept or category that encompasses a wide range of related ideas, subjects, or entities. It can be used metaphorically to describe a general or overarching term that covers multiple subtopics or areas of interest.

Prepare: প্রস্তত করা Make, Cook, Organize
Appealing: লোভনীয় Tempting, Pleasing, Enticing

Program: to make a person, an animal, etc. behave in a particular way, so that they do it without thinking about it
• be programmed to do something Human beings are genetically programmed to learn certain kinds of language.

Ask for: চাওয়া Demand, Beg for
Dietician: খাদ্য বিশেষজ্ঞ, খাদ্য বিশারদ a person whose job is to advise people on what kind of food they should eat to keep healthy
Nutritionist: পুষ্টিবিদ
Little: (determiner) নেই বললেই চলে
A great number of : (determiner) অনেক, প্রচুর
Definitely: স্পস্টভাবে, সুনির্দিস্টভাবে Certainly, Absolutely, Undeniably
Alternate: পরিবর্তন করা, পালটানো Interchange, Exchange
Category: শ্রেনী, বিভাগ Class, Type, Group, Classification
Depend: নির্ভর করা। rely
Ingredient: উপাদান, উপকরন Element, Component, Item
Process: প্রক্রিয়া Procedure, Method
Manufacture: উৎপাদন করা Produce, Make
Frequent: ঘন ঘন, ক্রমাগত, অবিরাম Regular, Repeated
Consumption: খাদ্য গ্রহণ, খাওয়া Intake, Ingesting Eating Feasting
Increase: বৃদ্ধি পাওয়া, বৃদ্ধি করা। Rise, Spread, Augment, Intensify
Intake: the amount of food, drink, etc. that you take into your body
• high fluid intake
• to reduce your daily intake of salt

Lead to: ধাবিত করা, পরিচালিত করা। result in, Cause, Bring about, Initiate
Obesity: স্থুলতা, মেদ বৃদ্ধি । Overweightness . (the quality or fact of being very fat, in a way that is not healthy)
• Obesity can increase the risk of heart disease

Cardiovascular: হৃদ সমন্ধনীয়, রক্ত প্রভাহিত শিরা সমন্ধনীয়। Cardiac, Heart
Disease: রোগ Illness, Sickness, Ailment
Chronic: দীর্ঘস্থায়ী ও দুরাগ্য Long-lasting, Continuing, Persistent
Clog up: আটকানো বা বাধা দেওয়া। Block, Jam, Obstruct, Choke
Artery: ধমনী
Basis: ভিত্তী, মূল উপাদান। Root, Source, Origin, Core, Foundation
Impending: আসন্ন, নিকটবর্তি Imminent, Awaiting, Coming, Impendent
Affect: ক্ষতি করা, আক্রমণ করা, প্রভান্বিত করা।
Addiction: আসক্তি Habit, Compulsion, Dependance, Obsession
Result in: ধাবিত করা, পরিচালিত করা, কারণ হওয়া lead to, cause
Rejection: প্রত্যাখ্যান Refusal, Denial.
Lack: অভাব, ঘাটতি। Deficiency, Shortage, Need, Insufficiency
A. Choose the correct answer from the alternatives. 1×10=10
a) The word ‘mouthwatering’ refers to a food that is
i. Distasteful ii) appetizing iii) stale iv) unsavory

b) What does ‘Intake’ refer to?
i. Rejection ii) consumption iii) inhalation iv) enrollment

c) Obesity refers to……….
i.Overweightness ii) thinness iii) slenderness iv) lankiness

d) What does the word ‘rejection’ mean?
I. Approval ii) refusal iii) choice iv) acceptance

e) What is chronic health problem?

i. An illness that persists for a long time or recurs constantly.
ii. A health condition that is persistent.
iii. A disease which causes slow death.
iv. A viral disease.

f) Junk foods are addictive because________
i. They have addictive agents added in them.
ii. They are prepared to look appealing and are enjoyable to consume.
iii. They are easy to digest.
iv. Their packaging is attractive.

g) What does the word ‘consumption’ refer to?
i. Fasting ii. Growth iii. creation iv. Intake

h) ‘Impending’ means……….
I. imminent ii. Distant iii. Remote iv. Improving
I) What does the word ‘oozing’ mean?
I. holding ii. Keeping iii. Trickling iv. Getting
J) which of the following is an example of cardiovascular disease?
i. hypothyroidism ii. Heart attack iii. Asthma iv. liver cirrhosis

B. Answer the following question.
a. What is junk food?
b. What is the difference between junk food and fast food?
c. What are some characteristics of junk food?
d. What are the probable results of addiction to junk food?
e. What health hazards does junk food create?
f. How does obesity affect the life of a person?
g. What are the reasons behind popularities of junk food?
h. What does junk food lead to?

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