Biomedical Engineering Club

Biomedical Engineering Club

We are Biomedical Engineering Club,we provides online learning concerning biomedical Equipment's and biomedical Research Biomedical Engineering


Why Electronic Devices Use DC Supply Instead Of AC Supply?

Electronic devices primarily use Direct Current
(DC) instead of Alternating Current (AC) for several fundamental reasons rooted in the nature of electronic circuits and the components that constitute these devices. Hereโ€™s a comprehensive exploration of why DC supply is favored in electronic devices.

1. Consistency and Stability

2. Stable Voltage Levels:
DC provides a constant voltage level, which is essential for the stable operation of most electronic components and circuits. Stability is crucial for components like semiconductors (transistors, diodes, integrated circuits) that rely on specific voltage levels for proper functioning.

3. No Frequency Interference:
DC supply eliminates concerns about frequency interference with device operation, which can be a significant consideration with AC.

4: Directional Flow:
Most electronic components, such as diodes and transistors, inherently allow current to flow in one direction, aligning naturally with DCโ€™s unidirectional flow. ACโ€™s changing direction would render these components ineffective or damage them.

5: Operational Requirement:
Integrated circuits (ICs), which form the backbone of modern electronic devices, require a constant DC supply to function accurately. ICs and microchips cannot operate directly on AC without a rectification stage to convert it to Dc.

6:Ease of Voltage Regulation:
It is easier to regulate DC voltage to the precise levels needed by electronic components. Voltage can be stepped down efficiently using simple circuits or switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) to accommodate the sensitive nature of electronic device.

7: Better Energy Storage.

DC is compatible with battery technology, allowing for energy storage. This compatibility is crucial for portable devices like smartphones, Laptops and electric vehicles.

In summary, the predominance of DC supply in electronic devices is due to the fundamental requirements of electronic circuitry and components, which necessitate stable and precise power delivery incompatible with the the inherent characteristics of AC power. Consequently.


Why ? ๐Ÿคท๐Ÿฟโ€โ™‚๏ธ

Letโ€™s us know in a comment


๐“๐ž๐œ๐ก๐ง๐ข๐ช๐ฎ๐ž๐ฌ ๐”๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐ข๐ง ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐๐ข๐š๐ ๐ง๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐ฌ.

๐„๐ง๐ณ๐ฒ๐ฆ๐ž-๐‹๐ข๐ง๐ค๐ž๐ ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐ฌ๐จ๐ซ๐›๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐€๐ฌ๐ฌ๐š๐ฒ (๐„๐‹๐ˆ๐’๐€):
ELISA is a versatile and widely used immunodiagnostics technique. It comes in several forms, including direct, indirect, and sandwich ELISA. These assays enable the quantification of specific antigens or antibodies in biological samples. ELISA is highly sensitive and can be used for various diagnostic purposes, including infectious disease testing, hormone measurement, and autoimmune disease diagnosis.

๐–๐ž๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ซ๐ง ๐๐ฅ๐จ๐ญ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  (๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐›๐ฅ๐จ๐ญ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐ ):
Western blotting is employed to detect and characterize specific proteins within a sample. It involves separating proteins by electrophoresis, transferring them to a membrane, and using antibodies to identify the target protein. This technique is especially useful in research and clinical settings for confirming the presence of particular proteins in complex mixtures.

๐…๐ฅ๐จ๐ฐ ๐‚๐ฒ๐ญ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ญ๐ซ๐ฒ:
Flow cytometry is utilized to analyze and quantify specific cell surface markers and intracellular proteins in individual cells within a heterogeneous population. It is instrumental in immunophenotyping, cancer diagnosis, and assessing immune cell function.

๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐ก๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐จ๐œ๐ก๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐ฒ (๐ˆ๐‡๐‚):
IHC is employed to visualize specific antigens within tissue samples. It aids in the diagnosis of diseases like cancer by identifying the presence and distribution of target molecules in tissues.

๐‘๐š๐๐ข๐จ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐š๐ฌ๐ฌ๐š๐ฒ (๐‘๐ˆ๐€):
Although less commonly used today due to safety concerns, RIA relies on radioactive isotopes to measure the concentration of specific molecules in a sample with exceptional sensitivity. It has historical significance in hormone and antibody quantification.

๐…๐ฅ๐ฎ๐จ๐ซ๐ž๐ฌ๐œ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐š๐ฌ๐ฌ๐š๐ฒ (๐…๐ˆ๐€):
FIA employs fluorescent labels on antibodies or antigens for detection. This technique is used in a wide range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics, drug monitoring, and biomarker analysis.


๐‚๐ก๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ฆ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ๐œ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐จ๐š๐ฌ๐ฌ๐š๐ฒ (๐‚๐‹๐ˆ๐€):
CLIA uses chemiluminescent reactions to produce light, which is quantified to determine the concentration of specific molecules. It is commonly employed in automated clinical diagnostic systems, offering high sensitivity and accuracy.

๐Œ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ญ๐ข๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฑ ๐€๐ฌ๐ฌ๐š๐ฒ๐ฌ:
Multiplex assays enable the simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes within a single sample. They are valuable for comprehensive diagnostic panels, such as assessing immune responses to infections or profiling cancer biomarkers.

Lateral Flow Assays (LFA):
LFAs are a subset of rapid immunoassays that use a simple paper-based platform to detect specific molecules. They are cost-effective and have applications in home pregnancy tests and infectious disease screening.


Biomedical Engineering and Supply Chain.

In the healthcare industry,the medical supply chain plays a vital role in ensuring the timely and efficient delivery of medical devices and supplies to healthcare providers.

The supply chain in the healthcare field encompasses a complex network of manufacturers, distributors, wholesalers, and healthcare facilities, all working together to meet the demands of patient care.

One essential aspect of the medical supply chain is the procurement of medical devices.

Manufacturers are responsible for producing a wide range of devices including diagnostic equipment, surgical tools, implants, and prosthetics.

These devices are then distributed to healthcare facilities through a network of wholesalers and distributors.

Efficient inventory management is crucial in the medical supply chain to prevent stockouts or overstocking.

It involves accurately tracking the demand for various medical devices and supplies, monitoring inventory levels, and coordinating with suppliers to ensure a consistent supply.

This process is facilitated by the use of advanced technologies such as inventory management systems and barcode scanning.

Furthermore, play a critical role in the supply chain of medical devices. Safe and timely delivery of these products is paramount to meeting patient needs.

Transportation methods can vary depending on the urgency, size, and fragility of the medical devices. For instance, smaller products may be transported via courier services, while larger equipment may require specialized handling and delivery arrangements.

Supply chain visibility is another crucial aspect in the healthcare industry, as it allows stakeholders to closely monitor and track the movement of medical devices at each stage of the supply chain.

This real-time visibility enables healthcare providers to anticipate potential disruptions, optimize inventory levels, and address any issues promptly.

Safety and quality control are of utmost importance in the medical supply chain. Regulatory bodies set guidelines and standards that manufacturers and distributors must adhere .


Iโ€™m getting deja vu ๐Ÿ˜œ, But I just wanted to say Happy New Year to you!

Biomedical Engineering Club.


๐“๐‘๐€๐๐’๐„๐’๐Ž๐๐‡๐€๐†๐„๐€๐‹ ๐„๐‚๐‡๐Ž๐‚๐€๐‘๐ƒ๐ˆ๐Ž๐†๐‘๐€๐๐‡๐˜ (๐“๐„๐„)

It stands as a remarkable diagnostic tool, offering unprecedented insights into the intricate workings of the heart. This technique has revolutionized how we visualize and understand cardiac anatomy and function, making it an indispensable asset in the arsenal of modern cardiac care.

ยค ๐๐š๐ฌ๐ข๐œ ๐…๐ฎ๐ง๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐“๐„๐„

TEE is a specialized ultrasound technique that employs high-frequency sound waves to generate detailed images of the heart and its surrounding structures. Unlike conventional echocardiography, which involves placing a transducer on the chest, TEE involves the insertion of a probe down the esophagus, positioning it directly behind the heart. This proximity allows for unparalleled clarity and precision in imaging.

ยค ๐–๐จ๐ซ๐ค๐ข๐ง๐  ๐๐ซ๐ข๐ง๐œ๐ข๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐“๐„๐„

The working principle of TEE is rooted in the science of ultrasound. The TEE probe emits sound waves that bounce off cardiac structures, creating echoes. These echoes are then captured by the probe and translated into real-time, high-resolution images. This dynamic visualization enables clinicians to assess cardiac function, identify anomalies, and monitor real-time changes during surgical interventions.

ยค ๐Œ๐š๐ฃ๐จ๐ซ ๐๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐“๐„๐„

ใ€‹๐“๐„๐„ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐›๐ž :It is the main part of TEE. It houses the transducer responsible for emitting and receiving ultrasound waves. The probe is carefully designed for safe insertion and optimal imaging.

ใ€‹๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ญ๐ซ๐จ๐ฅ ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž ๐”๐ง๐ข๐ญ : This unit will processes the received ultrasound signals and translates them into visual representations on a monitor.

ใ€‹๐Œ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐จ๐ซ /๐ƒ๐ข๐ฌ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐š๐ฒ : The monitor displays the live images generated by the TEE probe.

ใ€‹๐‘๐ž๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐๐ข๐ง๐  ๐š๐ง๐ ๐’๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐š๐ ๐ž ๐ฎ๐ง๐ข๐ญ : it's used to capture and store images and videos, facilitating documentation and further analysis


Terminologies Used In Ventilators Machines

1. CMV / Continuous Mandatory Ventilation

A mandatory system where the ventilator does everything.

2. SIMV / Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation

An assistive system for the patient that synchronizes with their breathing.

3. PCV / Pressure Control Ventilation

The ventilator delivers breath until a specified pressure is reached, with inhalation time longer than exhalation time.

4. PSV / Pressure Support Ventilation

The ventilator provides support until the patient takes a complete breath, allowing the patient to exhale without machine intervention.

5. CPAP / Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

Used for cases of sleep apnea where breathing temporarily stops during sleep.

6. BIPAP / Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure

For patients with a weight greater than 30 kilograms.

7. HFOV / High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

Provides small volumes of air at a rapid rate to improve gas exchange in the lungs.

8. APRV / Airway Pressure Release


๐Ÿซ€The HOLTER MONITOR was invented by Dr. Norman J. Holter, an American biophysicist & electrical engineer. Dr. Holter developed the Holter monitor in the 1940s.

His invention revolutionized the way medical professionals could continuously monitor a patient's heart activity, providing valuable insights into heart health.

๐Ÿซ€What it is:
A Holter monitor is a nifty device used in healthcare to keep a close eye on a person's heart. It's like a mini-computer that you wear & it records your heart's activity for an extended period, typically 24 to 48 hours, or even longer.

A Holter monitor is like a heart surveillance device that helps doctors get a better understanding of what's going on inside your ticker over a longer period. It's a valuable tool in keeping our hearts healthy.

๐Ÿซ€How it works:
Small, sticky patches with wires, called electrodes, are placed on your chest. These electrodes are connected to the Holter monitor, which you can carry in a pocket or wear around your neck. As you go about your daily activities, the monitor quietly does its job, recording every heartbeat.

๐Ÿซ€Why is this important?
It helps doctors detect irregular heart rhythms or issues that might not show up during a short visit to the clinic. It's like having a heart detective with you, observing your heart's behavior over an extended period.

Once the monitoring period is over, you return the Holter monitor to the healthcare provider, who then analyzes the data. They can spot any irregularities, like arrhythmias or skipped beats, which can be crucial in diagnosing heart problems.


A closer look at the human eye reveals not just a biological marvel, but a window into the complex interplay of light, perception, and individual experience


What is Corrective Maintenance?

This is any type of maintenance that we do AFTER a failure has occurred.

Many people mistake it for โ€œbreakdown maintenanceโ€.

But really, there are 2 types of Corrective Maintenance:

1๏ธโƒฃ Emergency maintenance is when something URGENTLY needs fixing that it breaks into our frozen weekly schedule. This is something weโ€™re all too familiar with. Something we want to avoid at all costs.

2๏ธโƒฃ Deferred corrective maintenance on the other hand, are other tasks that are more stable. Minor equipment faults or conditions that don't immediately impact plant availability... but need to be addressed in the future. These can often be Planned. Scheduled. Prioritised.

Don't mistake these two with each other.

Because the majority of your corrective maintenance should be deferred.


๐–๐ก๐š๐ญ ๐ข๐ฌ ๐๐ซ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ž ๐Œ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž?

I know this is a really basic question.

But many organisations fail to answer this correctly.

Because when most people talk about preventive maintenance...

They actually refer to Time Based Maintenance (TBM).

When in fact, it's only one out of five basic types of Preventive Maintenance:

Time-Based Maintenance (TBM)

Failure Finding Maintenance (FFM)

Risk-Based Maintenance (RBM)

Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM)

Predictive Maintenance (PDM)

This distinction is important because an effective PM program should use all of these different types of PMs.

Many organisations rely too much on TBM then say โ€œHey, weโ€™re doing Preventive Maintenanceโ€.

So to answer the question: What is Preventive Maintenance?

Preventive Maintenance is NOT Time-based Maintenance.

It is any maintenance focused on PREVENTING or mitigating the consequences of equipment failure so thatโ€”

-our equipment is available when we need it

-our equipment does what it's supposed to do

-we achieve this safely and with optimum cost.

A preventive maintenance task is a task we do before a failure has occurred. That task can be aimed at preventing a failure, minimising the consequence of the failure, or assessing the risk of the failure occurring.


In the field of Biomedical Engineering,
versatility is indeed crucial. This is because the scope of work in this discipline is vast and diverse. Biomedical engineers are involved in the design, development, testing, and implementation of various medical devices, equipment, and technologies, ranging from prosthetics and artificial organs to imaging systems and diagnostic tools.

Being versatile means having a wide range of skills and knowledge to adapt to different challenges. Biomedical engineers may find themselves working in various settings, such as research labs, hospitals, manufacturing facilities, or even in the field, addressing healthcare needs in remote areas or during emergencies.

Moreover, they must be prepared to collaborate with professionals from different backgrounds, such as medical practitioners, scientists, and industry experts. Communication and teamwork skills are vital to understanding the needs and requirements of each project and developing effective solutions.

The ever-evolving nature of technology and healthcare demands that biomedical engineers stay up-to-date with the latest advancements in their field. They must be willing to continuously learn and improve their skills to keep pace with the rapidly changing landscape.

Versatility is not optional for biomedical engineers; it is a necessity to excel in this dynamic and critical field, where innovation and adaptability are paramount to improving human health and well-being.


When you encounter a piece of equipment that is damaged due to mishandling or improper usage, it is important not to place blame solely on the user.

Instead, it is advisable to provide them with additional training on the proper usage of the equipment.

By doing so, you can address the root cause of the problem and equip the user with the knowledge and skills necessary to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.



Bubble CPAP, or continuous positive airway pressure, is a noninvasive respiratory support modality used to manage newborns with respiratory distress. It provides continuous pressure that helps prevent derecruitment of alveoli, increasing the lungs' functional residual capacity, and thus decreasing the work of breathing.

Bubble CPAP works by using a heated and humidified gas source to deliver a constant pressure to the infant's airway through nasal prongs. The pressure is created by a water column in the expiratory limb of the circuit. The depth of the water column determines the level of pressure.

To set up a bubble CPAP system, you will need the following supplies:

* A bubble CPAP machine
* A heated and humidified gas source
* Nasal prongs
* A water reservoir
* A tubing set

Once you have gathered your supplies, follow these steps to set up the system:

1. Connect the heated and humidified gas source to the bubble CPAP machine.
2. Attach the nasal prongs to the end of the tubing set.
3. Immerse the expiratory limb of the tubing set in the water reservoir. The depth of the water column will determine the level of pressure.
4. Turn on the bubble CPAP machine and adjust the pressure to the desired level.
5. Apply the nasal prongs to the infant's nostrils and secure them in place.

Once the system is set up, monitor the infant closely for signs of respiratory distress, such as increased respiratory rate, grunting, and retractions. If you observe any of these signs, contact the infant's healthcare provider immediately.

Bubble CPAP is a safe and effective treatment for newborns with respiratory distress. It can help to improve lung function, reduce the work of breathing, and prevent complications such as pneumonia and chronic lung disease.

Here are some additional tips for using bubble CPAP:

* Make sure the nasal prongs are properly fitted to the infant's nostrils. This will help to prevent leaks and ensure that the infant is receiving the correct amount of pressure.
* Monitor the infant's temperature closely. Bubble CPAP can cause the infant to lose heat, so it is important to keep them warm.
* Be sure to clean and sterilize the tubing


Nurses play a key role in improving health, preventing disease, responding to emergencies & more.


Here is what a fully dissected nervous system looks like:

It was first dissected in the 1880s by Rufus Benjamin Weaver.

His dissection has been widely recognized and has been featured in numerous anatomy and medical textbooks as well as in laboratories worldwide.


May Allah always bestow glories ,successes and happiness to you and your family .



๐˜พ๐™๐™Ž๐˜ผ (๐˜พ๐™–๐™ซ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™๐™ก๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™–๐™จ๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™Ž๐™ช๐™ง๐™œ๐™ž๐™˜๐™–๐™ก ๐˜ผ๐™จ๐™ฅ๐™ž๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™ง) , also known as Ultrasonic Dissector

Ultrasonic cavitation device is a surgical device using low frequency ultrasound energy to dissect or fragment tissues from one another while the device irrigates the area with sterile saline. The same handpiece then aspirates the fluid back out of the surgical site

Piezoelectric effect
The vibration occurs with a frequency of 23 kHz and with an adjustable stroke of 0-300 microns. The tip of the device, placed in contact with the target tissues, destroys and emulsifies the cell membranes, which are irrigated and removed through a built-in suction tube.

Surgeons use CUSA to cut out tumors without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue. The device generates ultrasonic waves in the range of 23kHz and this mechanical energy is delivered through a hollow 3 mm tip that vibrates at 23,000 cycles per second.

CUSA has become increasingly popular in several soft tissue surgeries, especially brain-spine tumour resection and liver resection as it allows reduction in the use of bipolar diathermy. CUSA improves both surgical safety and clinical outcomes, and also reduces surgical time

๐˜ผ๐™™๐™ซ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™–๐™œ๐™š๐™จ ๐™ค๐™› ๐˜พ๐™๐™Ž๐˜ผ
โ™ฆ๏ธRapid removal of tumor in less time.
โ™ฆ๏ธSafe and controlled removal of tumor.
โ™ฆ๏ธMinimal manipulation of structures surrounding the tumor which decrease the risk of failure.
โ™ฆ๏ธNo bleeding in the surgical site
โ™ฆ๏ธBetter visibility in surgical area.

๐˜ฟ๐™ž๐™จ๐™–๐™™๐™ซ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™–๐™œ๐™š ๐™ค๐™› ๐˜พ๐™๐™Ž๐˜ผ
โ™ฆ๏ธMore technically challenging the open procedure
โ™ฆ๏ธPossibility of disease transmission
โ™ฆ๏ธLocal bone resorption


Is terminology important?

I was curious to include some technical English terms in my teaching of biomedical Engineers and I found some amazing terminology that you probablyย use in your daily tasks.
1.ย ย ย Biomaterials
ย Materials that are used to replace or augment living tissues and organs.
2.ย ย ย Biomechanics
The study of how mechanical forces affect biological systems, such as the human body.
3.ย ย ย Biomedical instrumentation
The design and development of devices used for medical purposes, such as monitoring vital signs or administering medication.
4.ย ย ย Biomedical imaging
The use of technologies such as X-rays, MRI, or CT scans to produce images of the inside of the body for diagnosis and treatment.
5.ย ย ย Bioreactor
ย A device that is used to grow cells or tissues in a controlled environment.
6.ย ย ย Bioprocessing
ย The use of biological agents, such as enzymes or microorganisms, to produce pharmaceuticals or other products.
7.ย ย ย Clinical trials
Research studies that test the safety and efficacy of new drugs or medical devices in humans.
8.ย ย ย FDA approval
ย The process by which the U.S. Food and Drug Administration evaluates and approves new drugs and medical devices for sale in the United States.
9.ย ย ย Medical device classification
ย The process by which medical devices are categorized based on their level of risk to patients, with higher-risk devices subject to more rigorous regulatory requirements.
10.Quality control
ย The process of ensuring that products meet established standards for safety, efficacy, and reliability.
Iโ€™m sure that if you know the technical terminology in your field you can better understand and communicate about the technical aspects of your work.

Feel free to add your own technical terms in the comments below.


Would you like to work internationally?

Many biomedical engineers are asking about international jobs.

Finding international jobs ย in the field of biomedical engineering can be a challenging task, BUT there are several steps you can take to increase your chances of success.

1.ย ย ย Improve English Language Skills
ย Since most international jobs require English language proficiency, it is important to focus on improving your English language skills.

Consider taking English language courses, watching English-language TV shows, or practicing speaking with native speakers to improve fluency.

2.ย ย ย Build a Strong Professional Network
Networking is critical to finding international jobs. Joining professional associations and attending industry conferences and events can help you make connections and learn about job opportunities.

4.ย ย ย Utilize Online Job Platforms
ย Job search websites like LinkedIn, Indeed, and Glassdoor are excellent resources for finding international biomedical engineering jobs. Be sure to tailor your resume and cover letter to the specific job and company you are applying for.

5.ย ย ย Apply for International Internships or Research Programs
Such programs provide valuable experience and connections in the field. Look for opportunities that align with your interests and career goals.

6.ย ย ย Consider Pursuing a Master's or PhD
Having an advanced degree can make you a more competitive candidate. Pursuing a graduate degree in a specialized area of biomedical engineering can also help you stand out from other applicants.

7.ย ย ย Be Flexible and Adaptable
International biomedical engineering jobs may require relocation and adjusting to a new culture. Be open to new experiences and willing to adapt to new environments.

By taking these steps, you can increase your chances of finding international jobs in your field.

Good luck with your job search!.


Let's talk about Quality control (QC)

A) Definition/Importance
โ€ข QC is a statistical process used to monitor and evaluate the analytical process that produces patient results
โ€ข Ensures reproducibility of the testing system (precision) and accuracy
โ€ข Helps to detect changes in performance of the testing system
โ€ข Helps to verify that the patient results released are reliable
โ€ข It is testing of known samplesย with known concentrations

B) QC resultsย 
โ€ข can be quantitative (a number), qualitative (positive or negative) or
semi-quantitative (a qualitative result that is based on a quantitative measurement-a
cut-off value to distinguish positive from negative results. A sample concentration at or above the cut-off value is reported as positive and a sample concentration less than the cut-off value is reported as negative.)

C) Characteristics of QC Product (material)
โ€ข A QC product is a patient-like material
โ€ข Can be made from human serum, urine, whole blood, spinal fluid etc.
โ€ข Can be liquid or lyophilized(freeze-dried)
โ€ข Can be assayed or unassayed
โ€ข It is composed of one or more constituents(analytes) of known concentration.
โ€ข It should be tested in the same manner as patient samples.

D) Quality Control Testing
โ€ข Good laboratory practice requires testing normal and abnormal controls.
โ€ข Each lab should evaluate QC levels(number), frequency and rules depending on their policies.
โ€ข QC testing must comply with CLIA requirements, accreditation agencies, state and local health departments, and manufacturer's recommendations.

E) QC Frequency
โ€ข The decision on QC frequency is influenced by multiple factors.
โ€ข The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) states in its guidelines that the criteria should be based on:
-Expected stability of the system
-Number of patient specimens routinely analyzed
-Cost of reanalysis caused by QC failure
-Workflow patterns
-Operator characteristics
-Clinical impact of an undetected error that may occur before the next control is run
-Stability of the analyte in patient specimens
-Timing of reagent lot change
-Following calibration
-Detection of questionable patient results


Do me a favor! And read until the end!!

5 ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐˜„๐—ต๐˜† ๐˜†๐—ผ๐˜‚ ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—น๐—ฑ ๐—ฐ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฒ ๐˜†๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ท๐—ผ๐—ฏ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—พ๐˜‚๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—น๐˜†

โ€œ1. ๐—•๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป ๐—ฌ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฆ๐—ธ๐—ถ๐—น๐—น ๐—ฆ๐—ฒ๐˜:
As a result of changing jobs regularly, you can gain new skills, gain new experience, and become a more well-rounded professional.

2. ๐—ก๐—ฒ๐—ด๐—ผ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ข๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ป๐—ถ๐˜๐˜†:
Negotiating your salary or other compensation can be easier if you frequently change jobs and companies.
You will have a better chance of understanding the market value of your skills when you take on new roles.

3. ๐—˜๐˜…๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐˜€๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜„ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐˜€๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ฒ๐˜€:
If you change jobs every few years, you can explore different industries and roles that may be more suitable for you.
A job change can help you gain insight into new roles, acquire new skills and certifications, and enhance your resume.

4. ๐—œ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ ๐—น๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ด-๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—บ ๐—ท๐—ผ๐—ฏ ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ณ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป:
By changing roles, youโ€™ll have the ability to continually challenge yourself, continue to make an impact, and have better long-term job satisfaction.

5. ๐—˜๐˜…๐—ฝ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฌ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ก๐—ฒ๐˜๐˜„๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ธ:
Every job is a chance to expand your network โ€“ with potential mentors, collaborators, and employers.
Having that wide reach can be incredibly useful on the job market, potentially giving you an advantage over other jobseekers.

Changing jobs frequently can be scary, but if you can manage it strategically, youโ€™ll stay up to date, gain new skills and build a wide network that can open many more doors and opportunities for your future.โ€

Credits Adnan Manna for that article above

But wait!!!

What do you think?

Is this correct? Or very wrong?

What did you do?

Did you change jobs frequently (letโ€™s say every 3-5 years) or stayed long at one job/company.

Would love to get your feedback on this very important topic.


Any Carrier Opportunities for Biomedical Engineers? ๐Ÿคท๐Ÿฟโ€โ™‚๏ธ.

Kindly describe to help our Young Pioneers.

That is the most asked Questions


๐™†๐™ฃ๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™ฎ๐™ค๐™ช๐™ง ๐™€๐˜พ๐™ˆ๐™Š ๐™ˆ๐™–๐™˜๐™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™š
Extra Corporial Membrane Oxygenation
A life support machine that replaces the function of the heart and lungs. These patients are the sickest of all patients in any critical care unit and will invariably have a prolonged course and rehabilitation

๐™’๐™๐™š๐™ฃ ๐™™๐™ค ๐™ฌ๐™š ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™š๐™™ ๐™ž๐™ฉ?
When the heart cannot pump blood and the lungs cannot provide enough oxygen or take out the carbon dioxide.

๐™ƒ๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™™๐™ค๐™š๐™จ ๐™ž๐™ฉ ๐™ฌ๐™ค๐™ง๐™  ๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™ค๐™ช๐™ง ๐™—๐™ค๐™™๐™ฎ?
It pumps blood from the patient's body to an artificial lung which adds oxygen to it and further removes carbon dioxide and it further pumps the blood back to the patients body just like the heart does which is done via a centrifugal pump.

๐™„๐™จ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™ฅ๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ ๐™–๐™ฌ๐™–๐™ ๐™š ๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™€๐˜พ๐™ˆ๐™Š?
Generally no. Patients that undergo ECMO are typically already connected to a ventilator through a breathing tube down their mouth or nose and have received pain medications and sedatives. When they're first connected to the machine, they are sedated and do not feel the tubes going into their veins and arteries. And when his or her condition improve they will not need it any longer as their heart and lungs start to function normally again.

๐™„๐™จ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š๐™ง๐™š ๐™–๐™ฃ ๐˜ผ๐™ฌ๐™–๐™ ๐™š ๐™€๐˜พ๐™ˆ๐™Š ?
Yes. But very rare only in specialised centres and through careful patient selection. Awake ECMO is ECMO without mechanical ventilation in spontaneously breathing patients. They are maintained awake during ECMO run. It is usually used for patient with acute respiratory distress.

๐™ƒ๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™ก๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™™๐™ค๐™š๐™จ ๐™– ๐™ฅ๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™š๐™™ ๐™ฉ๐™ค ๐™—๐™š ๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™€๐˜พ๐™ˆ๐™Š?
It varies based on the depth of the injury and the seriousness of the patients condition. ECMO does NOT cure the disease. It is only a support mechanism when the patient undergoes the treatment /recovery phase.

๐™ƒ๐™€๐˜ผ๐™๐™ ๐™‡๐™๐™‰๐™‚ ๐™ˆ๐˜ผ๐˜พ๐™ƒ๐™„๐™‰๐™€ ๐™ซ๐™จ ๐™€๐˜พ๐™ˆ๐™Š
An ECMO is similar to the HLM which is used during bypass surgeries . But an ECMO is used for longer period like hours , days or even weeks based on the recovery pace of the patient. Where as a HLM is used only during the surgery.

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