Pcolista

Pcolista

"Pcol" is an abbreviation for Pharmacology. The owner of this page is a pharmacist who loves Pcol si

Operating as usual

22/06/2021

Good luck and God bless, future pharmacists! ❤️

26/04/2021

'Wag pilitin ang 'di para sa isa't isa.. char! 😹

24/04/2021

Good luck and God bless sa mga kukuha bukas ng Pharmacy board exam! 📝💊❤️ Konting refresher ng other names of vitamins haha baka lalabas. Calm those nerves and vibe to the beat. 😹🎉 Kaya nyo yan! Congratulations in advance, soon-to-be-RPh's! 🥳🤗

**Erratum: Vit. B6 = Pyridoxine (hehe sowi typo, kulang ng E sa vid)

21/02/2021

Titrant: Naubos ako...

It's OVER... (titrated) char

06/02/2021

🤷🏻‍♀️

08/01/2021

How much caffeine do you need for your thesis?

06/01/2021

It's challenging to beat the inertia from the holiday season but recalling the contrast of where you are and where you dream to be should be enough to get you going and focusing on what demands to be done to actualize your goals. Faith and perseverance, future RPhs! 2021 will be your year! Time to get hydrated, caffeinated, and motivated — move one step closer to becoming a Registered Pharmacist! You got this! God bless! 🤗🥰💊❤️

19/11/2020

Cinacalcet hydrochloride is a calcium receptor agonist which activates calcium-sensing receptors and inhibits PTH secretion. 💊 It is clinically indicated for hyperparathyroidism. Common toxicity is nausea. 🤢

18/11/2020

Alam nyo kung paano humugot ang pharma... 😹🤣

19/09/2020

Meanwhile in antiviral pharmacology... 🍻🍾🍷🥂🍸😹

05/09/2020

Beta-blockers ("The -lols/-olols") are generally drugs that antagonize the beta adrenergic receptors. Such mechanism is important for the pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure because the blockade of beta 1 receptors (which are G-protein coupled receptors lead to the decrease in activity of adenylyl cyclase and decrease in the levels of secondary messengers called cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cAMP) causes less activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-Systen and less inotropy and chronotropy of the heart (⬇️ blood pressure, ⬇️ cardiac workload, ⬇️ cardiac output). However, some beta blockers are non-selective which means they can also block the beta 2 receptors that may lead to bronchoconstriction. There is another subclassification for beta blockers which is the intrinsic sympathomimetic agents (PINdolol, PENbutolol, BOPINdolol, CELIprolol, CARTEolol ACEbutolol, and OXPRENolol – the capitalized syllables are the ones used in the recall song technique ☺️). These agents are partial agonists of the beta receptors and therefore cause less bradycardia as side effect.

30/08/2020

Ayun, speaking of asthma 😹
Kantahin ninyo ang one of the basic goals of pharmacotherapy ng drugs for asthma: "Pamela one, avoid stimulating beta 1. Pamela two, bigyan ng agonist of beta 2." 🎶🤣

10/08/2020

Review tayo konti about angina pectoris and the basic pharmacology of antianginal drugs 💊❤️

Angina pectoris = chest pain due to myocardial ischemia (imbalance between oxygen demand and supply to the heart)

What is the most common cause of angina? CAD or coronary artery disease (atherosclerotic plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries supplying blood to the heart)

Types of angina:
1. Classic/effort angina - (buti pa to, nag e-effort kesa sa walang kwentang ex mo char haha); this is chest pain due to inadequate blood flow in the presence of CAD wherein myocardial oxygen requirement increases during PHYSICAL EXERTION (CLUE: EXERT EFFORT)

2. Vasospastic/prinzmetal/variant angina - remember that this is chest pain due to transcient coronary VASOSPASMS (oxygen delivery decreases which may cause ischemia and pain huhu)

3. Unstable angina - (TANDAAN PINAKADELIKADO KAPAG UNSTABLE, HIGHEST RISK NAMASASAKTAN ANG PUSO) this type of angina occurs at rest, Wala ka na nga ginagawa pero nasasaktan puso mo and this is associated with high risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack)

So Yung pharmacotherapeutic goal natin would be to increase oxygen delivery or supply to ischemic tissue or to decrease myocardial oxygen demand or requirement by decreasing heart rate, contractility, and blood pressure through (mnemonics: t-B.O.C) treatment with BETA BLOCKERS, ORGANIC NITRATES, and CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS.

Therapeutic mainstay for IMMEDIATE RELIEF: ORGANIC NITRATES

For prophylaxis (prevention): CCBs, Beta blockers and the miscellaneous antianginal agents (e.g., ranolazine, trimetazidine, ivabradine, fasudil, etc.)

Like/follow/share this post and page for more upcoming pharma review tips :3

God bless especially sa mga future medication experts who will take the December 2020 PLE! Ma'am Ste is rooting for youuu! 💊❤️✨

30/06/2020

Buprenorphine (Partial Opioid Agonist) as Teddie and Morphine (Full Opioid Agonist) as Bobbie 🤣

Opioid receptors belong to the Gi-protein coupled receptors (an inhibitory 7-transmembrane spanning receptor) which when activated, lead to the decrease of adenylyl cyclase and secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This leads to decreased calcium influx and activation of potassium channels resulting to hyperpolarization. In the hyperpolarized state, neuronal signals are inhibited and therefore transmission of pain signals are inhibited as well.

Full Opioid Agonists such as Morphine, Codeine, Hydromorphone, Hydrocodone, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Fentanyl, Levorphanol, Meperidine, and He**in have greatest affinity and bind tightly to opioid receptors leading to maximum efficacy.

Partial Opioid Agonists such as Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, Pentazocine, and Tramadol cause less receptor activation than full agonists (that can't reach the maximum efficacy unlike full Agonists – like how di ma reach ni Teddie si Bobbie kaya inggit na inggit daw sya) 😅😹

Sometimes Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, and Pentazocine are also referred to as mixed Agonists (just like Nalbuphine) since in the presence of a full agonist, they act as an antagonist.

Antidotes for Opioid toxicity are your Opioid antagonists such as Naloxone and Naltrexone.

🤗🥰❤️✨

Read up more here: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/contributor/jeffrey-fudin/2018/01/opioid-agonists-partial-agonists-antagonists-oh-my

30/06/2020

Otto Heinrich Warburg discovered an intriguing phenomenon in cellular metabolism and cellular respiration wherein he observed that cancer cells have the propensity for anaerobic glycolysis despite of adequate oxygen levels available. The Warburg Effect pertains to the inefficient metabolic pathway that tumour cells prefer and this leads to having high rates of glucose uptake and increased lactic acid secretion. Cancer cell growth, survival, and proliferation are enhanced by these metabolic alterations since they allow cells to feed on non-mitochondrial pathways for macromolecular synthesis. Mutations of enzymes in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation as well as activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes also complexly interplay.

So applicable bottomline, try to decrease your sugar intake to lessen your risk for diseases such as diabetes and cancer. 🤗❤️✨

Sources:
[1] DeBerardinis, R.J., Chandel, N.S. (2020). We need to talk about the Warburg effect. Nat Metab 2, 127–129. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-0172-2
[2] Liberti, M. V., & Locasale, J. W. (2016). The Warburg Effect: How Does it Benefit Cancer Cells?. Trends in biochemical sciences, 41(3), 211–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibs.2015.12.001
[3] Huiyan Sun, Liang Chen, Sha Cao, Yanchun Liang, Ying Xu.(2019).
Warburg Effects in Cancer and Normal Proliferating Cells: Two Tales of the Same Name, Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 273-286, ISSN 1672-0229, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2018.12.006.
[4]https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1931/warburg/biographical/
[5] https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/genetics/genes-and-cancer/oncogenes-tumor-suppressor-genes.html
[6] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/cancer-causes/art-20044714

27/06/2020

According to the World Health Organization, 10 million deaths per year can be caused by drug-resistant diseases by 2050. As pharmacists, we must continue to ensure the safe, effective, and rational use of medications especially antibiotics. Many microorganisms especially bacteria have developed various mechanisms of resistance against our available anti-infective agents. We must continue the fight against the misuse, abuse, and overuse of antimicrobial agents. 💊❤️

Want your school to be the top-listed School/college?

Videos (show all)

Vitamin ABC's 🎉😹
Calcium receptor agonist 💊
Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Beta-Blockers Song Recall Technique 💊💖
A Biochemistry Topic: The Warburg Effect (Altered Glucose Metabolism in Cancer Cells)

Website