Samoa History Page

Samoa History Page

Comments

My respect to you admin of this beautiful page...but if you dont mind please... if you can tell the story where this word coming from please... PO'UA AE LE PO LAGO. sorry ..my english is not good.

Historical and Mythological information (not for profit) This page is about the independent state of Samoa. Note: This Page is under copyright - © 2020 Help Promote Samoa Media Inc.

Please don’t steel our content.

Operating as usual

Photos from Samoa History Page's post 10/09/2021

Black Saturday

The worst incident in New Zealand’s relationship with Samoa occurred on Saturday 28 December 1929. It was precipitated by a fracas that erupted during a Mau parade along Apia’s waterfront to welcome home two members who had been exiled in New Zealand. The incident culminated in police opening fire on the crowd, leaving at least eight dead.

The fracas was caused by an attempt by the police to arrest the Mau’s secretary, who, provocatively, was marching in the parade. The Mau had earlier been warned that such action would be taken if any wanted men marched, and the administration feared for its authority if it failed to carry through on its threat. The marchers vigorously opposed the arrest attempt, and additional police arrived. As the situation deteriorated, some of the police fired their revolvers at the crowd, and then began retreating towards the police station in a side street, pursued by Samoans. During this movement Constable Abraham was caught and clubbed to death.

As the mob approached the station, a police sergeant fired a Lewis machine gun from the balcony in an effort to deter them. An experienced machine gunner, he directed the fire over the heads of the crowd. But three other policemen, panicking at the thought that the rioters might get under the balcony and burn the building down with them in it, fired at the crowd with their rifles. Tragically, this fire mortally wounded the prominent Samoan leader Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III. It also killed Migao, Leota Anese, Tapu, Ainoa, Faumuina of Savai’i, Vele and Tu’ia.

To the New Zealanders, this traumatic event had been caused by the Samoans’ resistance to the arresting party. The coroner, New Zealander John Luxford, concluded that the use of fi****ms had, in the circumstances, been justified. Naturally, Samoans took a very different view. To them the police had made an outrageous attack on an innocent crowd. The Mau made much of the machine-gun fire, claiming it had been directed at the crowd – and were angered when the coroner ruled this out (a verdict that was seemingly borne out by the limited number of casualties). The killing of Tamasese, who was apparently trying to restrain the crowd at the moment he was shot, left a deep sense of grievance among many Samoans. This was exacerbated by the administration’s actions in the following weeks.

The administration's response

Convinced that the Mau had lost heart, Administrator Stephen Allen adopted aggressive measures to ensure its complete collapse. On 13 January 1930, after the Mau refused to give up its headquarters and surrender wanted men, he declared the organisation seditious and the wearing of the Mau uniform illegal.

As many as 1500 Mau men took to the bush. They were pursued by an armed force of 150 marines and seamen from HMS Dunedin, recently arrived from New Zealand, and 50 military police. A seaplane supported military excursions into the bush to hunt down the fugitives.

At the present moment he [the Samoan] is in the position of a sulky and insubordinate child who has deliberately disobeyed his father, as the administrator is generally termed, and no peaceful persuasion will induce him to submit. There is no alternative, therefore, but to treat him roughly … force is the only thing which will appeal to the Samoan.

Commodore Blake, commander of the marines, in Lagaga: a short history of Western Samoa, pp. 137–8

Samoa’s inhabitants supported the Mau by supplying them with food and shelter, and providing reports on New Zealand operations. Marines attempted to prevent such activities by raiding villages, often at night and with fixed bayonets.

The Mau eluded the marines, but by mid-February both sides were showing signs of fatigue. In March, with the assistance of local Europeans and missionaries, Mau leaders met New Zealand’s Minister of Defence and agreed to disperse.

Brigadier-General Herbert Hart (1931–35) replaced Allen as Administrator in April 1931 and an uneasy stalemate ensued. Men were arrested for showing support for the Mau, so women rallied supporters and staged demonstrations. A surge in support when Olaf Nelson returned from exile in 1933 was quickly suppressed with his re-arrest and deportation the following year. The Mau appeared finished.

Photos and article Mikaele OConnor
Help Promote Samoa Media inc

09/09/2021
09/09/2021
08/09/2021

Image from page 276 of "Samoa 'uma, where life is different" (1902)

Title: Samoa 'uma, where life is different
Year: 1902 (1900s)
Authors: Churchill, Llewella Pierce, Mrs. [from old catalog]
Subjects:
Publisher: New York, Forest and Stream publishing company
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

Colorisation by M O’Connor

Image from page 276 of "Samoa 'uma, where life is different" (1902)

Title: Samoa 'uma, where life is different
Year: 1902 (1900s)
Authors: Churchill, Llewella Pierce, Mrs. [from old catalog]
Subjects:
Publisher: New York, Forest and Stream publishing company
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

Colorisation by M O’Connor

06/09/2021

Apolima Island

The Apolima Island is a tuff cone complex similar to the islands located east of Upolu. The crater rim is about 80 m above sea level and forms a castle-like architecture with an almost complete circular rim breached toward the east. The pyroclastic succession of the island is brownish-grey lapilli tuff in a semi-consolidated state. The tuff cone slopes at about 25–35° following the original bedding angle, which possibly indicates its relative youth. The diameter of the island appears to be close to the original rim diameter of the original tuff cone. Apolima appears to have formed from multiple explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions with shifting vent sites across a broad vent area.

A legend from Apolima.

A long, long time ago a lady left Savai'i with her son and daughter. Her son's name was Nono. On the way from Savai'i, she decided to settle on Apolima Island. They started a new life there, but the children were not happy, because life was difficult. So they moved forward to the lush neighbouring island of Manono, leaving their mother behind. When they arrived in their new home, the siblings fell in love with one another, and soon a baby was born. The other people on Manono were surprised about their relationship and the boy, Nono, became very shy (“Ma” in Samoan). The story spread quickly and soon after the island became known as Manono. Running from this shame, the girl tried to return to her mother on Apolima. As she swam back, her mother saw her in the rough seas and happily opened her arms wide to seize her from the water. Apo-Lima means, in Samoan, to grab or retrieve by hand (from water e.g.). Later on when the people arrived on Apolima, they named the island after this story, Apolima, the place of the grabbing hand.

Apolima which is smaller than Manono is surrounded by rugged cliffs and access to the interior is through a single opening in the cliff navigable only with extreme care. Access is always very difficult since there is about 50m wide gate channel blocked off by a cliff called Papaloto, leaving only a narrow serpentine passage on the east side. Since the ocean surges directly into the entrance opening, at the first bend to the left a whirlpool (vili) is created which is often quite dangerous for ingoing boats. In front of the whirlpool is a small cliffy headland Paugaluga and in front of its seaward the rock Tautulioso. There is one village on the island, and is located within the crater amongst gardens and native bush. Apolima is accessible by a 35 minute aluminium boat ride from Manono-uta (on Upolu island) across the lagoon. It is about 2 km from Nuulopa and 9 km from Savaii. The total land mass of the island is approximately 101.5 hectares.

Apolima Island

The Apolima Island is a tuff cone complex similar to the islands located east of Upolu. The crater rim is about 80 m above sea level and forms a castle-like architecture with an almost complete circular rim breached toward the east. The pyroclastic succession of the island is brownish-grey lapilli tuff in a semi-consolidated state. The tuff cone slopes at about 25–35° following the original bedding angle, which possibly indicates its relative youth. The diameter of the island appears to be close to the original rim diameter of the original tuff cone. Apolima appears to have formed from multiple explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions with shifting vent sites across a broad vent area.

A legend from Apolima.

A long, long time ago a lady left Savai'i with her son and daughter. Her son's name was Nono. On the way from Savai'i, she decided to settle on Apolima Island. They started a new life there, but the children were not happy, because life was difficult. So they moved forward to the lush neighbouring island of Manono, leaving their mother behind. When they arrived in their new home, the siblings fell in love with one another, and soon a baby was born. The other people on Manono were surprised about their relationship and the boy, Nono, became very shy (“Ma” in Samoan). The story spread quickly and soon after the island became known as Manono. Running from this shame, the girl tried to return to her mother on Apolima. As she swam back, her mother saw her in the rough seas and happily opened her arms wide to seize her from the water. Apo-Lima means, in Samoan, to grab or retrieve by hand (from water e.g.). Later on when the people arrived on Apolima, they named the island after this story, Apolima, the place of the grabbing hand.

Apolima which is smaller than Manono is surrounded by rugged cliffs and access to the interior is through a single opening in the cliff navigable only with extreme care. Access is always very difficult since there is about 50m wide gate channel blocked off by a cliff called Papaloto, leaving only a narrow serpentine passage on the east side. Since the ocean surges directly into the entrance opening, at the first bend to the left a whirlpool (vili) is created which is often quite dangerous for ingoing boats. In front of the whirlpool is a small cliffy headland Paugaluga and in front of its seaward the rock Tautulioso. There is one village on the island, and is located within the crater amongst gardens and native bush. Apolima is accessible by a 35 minute aluminium boat ride from Manono-uta (on Upolu island) across the lagoon. It is about 2 km from Nuulopa and 9 km from Savaii. The total land mass of the island is approximately 101.5 hectares.

Photos from Samoa History Page's post 04/09/2021

SAMOA IN THE MIDDLE OF A WAR

In 1812 the US and Britain the two were at war but the rest of the world wasn’t aware. April 2019 marks the 120th anniversary of the first Anglo-American alliance.
What is not understood in the South Pacific is that London and Washington united to shell, machine-gun and occupy Sāmoa.
Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Sāmoans, including women and children, were killed by the Anglo-Americans over three months in 1899. It is a story that is not taught in Sāmoa schools because London and Washington were able to divide and arm Sāmoans against themselves.

Sāmoa has never had a “king” or “queen”, but in the 19th Century this was an inconvenient fact for colonists who wanted to take the country. Imperial Germany lead the way, but London and Washington quickly followed.

Early in 1899, the Anglo-Americans decided to choose a handsome 20-year-old man, just out of school in New Zealand, to become king; the newly appointed tama’āiga Malietoa Tanumafili.

Malietoa Tanumafili

But the Germans preferred tama’āiga Mata’afa Iosefa, a 67-year-old tama’āiga. Eleven years earlier, Mata’afa and his men had ambushed and killed as many as 30 German marines just outside of Āpia, at a place called Vailele. Alliances change though, and Berlin preferred Mata’afa. And so it seemed, did most of Sāmoa; he had a five to one advantage in men under arms over Malietoa. For ‘Upolu, it meant devastating war was to come with hatred on both sides.

MATA'AFA’S GOVERNMENT

Despite the naming of Malietoa as king, Mata’afa seized Mulinu’ū and established a “provisional government”. Some fighting between Malietoa and Mata’afa followed and the whites who controlled Āpia called for gunboats. This call led to the arrival of the white hulled German Navy’s Falke was playing the role of a neutral against the Royal Navy’s ships Tauranga, Porpoise and Royalist. Malietoa sought protection aboard Porpoise. The 4324-ton cruiser USS Philadelphia arrived with the US Pacific Squadron Commander-in-Chief Rear Admiral Albert Kautz.

As the highest ranked officer in Sāmoa, he assumed command. As an aside, the arrival of the US coincided with the dominance of Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Seapower Upon History that argued empires had flourished not by controlling large land areas, but by ruling the seas. It is why the Americans had annexed Hawaii: Sāmoa was next.
Kautz denounced Mata’afa’s ‘provisional government’, calling it ‘revolutionary and subversive of the legal government.…’ Mata’afa was told to go home or be bombed. Mata’afa moved out of Mulinu’ū, not in compliance with Kautz’s demands, but because with warships nearby, his position was indefensible. He went a two kilometres west, across Vaiusu Bay, to set up headquarters at Vaiusu.

SHELLING OUT SAMOA

At one o’clock on 15 March, Kautz gave the order to open fire. A six inch shell from the USS Philadelphia went over Mulinu’ū and into Vaiusu. Philadelphia’s third shell destroyed a canoe off the village. No record was made of what happened to the people in it. Forty five minutes after firing began, Philadelphia’s salvoes ended. English and American people in Āpia cheered. Other ships then began firing.

Killing Samoans

The shelling alarmed both friend and foe around Āpia when shot fell close to the town. Several men were wounded at the US Consulate. Āpia houses were damaged and riddled with bullets, either by accident or deliberately.
At no point that day, or in the weeks to follow, was any attempt made by the Anglo-Americans to account for those they killed and wounded. They were fired ruthlessly into homes along the shore, occupied, for the most part, by women and children.
Ashore Anglo-American marines and bluejackets terrorised people with rifle and machine gun fire. Tagoa Coe said officers and soldiers came to the house and told them to get out otherwise they would set it on fire and killed them all; ‘They pushed my mother out with their guns, and we all followed and went on board the German ship.... ‘ The family lost everything.

VILLAGES TARGETED

Other places bombarded by the Americans and British that month were Sāluafata and Solosolo. Outside of Āpia harbour in that two week period the US and Royal Navy ships shell and burned the villages of Malie, Fale’ula, Afega, Sāle’imoa, Utuali’i, Faleāsi’u, Vaiusu, Fasito’otai, Falefā, Sāluafata, Solosolo, Sāluafata, Lufilufi,Faleāpuna, Fasito’outa, Leulomoaga and Fagali’i.
On 23 March 1899 Malietoa went ashore at Mulinu’ū to be crowned king of that part of the country that the Anglo-Americans let him be ‘under the guns and protection of the English and American fleets.’ British and US ship bands struck up and supporters marched along Mulinu’ū road. Tupua Tamasese Lealofi, a tama’āiga, commanded Malietoa’s army, known as the Red Tops.

‘Understand now you are going to fight for your country and the settlement of good government,’ Ross quoted him addressing his troop. ‘Up to this time these white people have been doing it all for you. Now it is your turn to do something. Go in, never mind what happens, be brave, do not be afraid to get killed. If you are killed good will come out of it, for in time to come even if you are not here your sons and daughters will profit by what you now do.”
In an effort to put more fight into the Malietoa side, Lieutenant Guy Gaunt of Porpoise, created an up to thousand strong group to fight. They went near the village of Māgiagi and without warning, opened fire with two heavy machine gun style weapons. One poured 400 shots a minute into the village church. No one checked how many were killed.

THE AMBUSH

Mata’afa did not want to fight the whites: he knew they had so much more weapons. But that ended on 1 April, 1899 in what would become the Second Battle of Vailele. The Anglo-Americans marched over to Fagali’i and destroyed the village. They moved on and destroyed Vailele and Letogo villages. With that they decided to march back to Āpia.
Between the Vaivase stream and Faleālili Street Mata’afa ambushed the Americans and the British. The foreigners suffered a resounding battlefield defeat, with many killed.

The Anglo-Americans fled the battlefield and Mata’afa achieved the globally unique moment of having beaten the Germans, the Americans and the British in battle.
A monument was erected at Mulinu’ū honouring the Anglo-American dead. There are no monuments to any Sāmoans; it’s not even known how many were killed. Even the voices of those who were there, fighting for Mata’afa, went silent and then were lost in a tragedy 18 years on.

HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND VAILIMA

The shelling and destruction of villages continued. HMS Tauranga threw experimental ‘lyddite’ shells at Vailima. Each shell contained a powerful chemical explosive, stronger than dynamite. From 1896, they were the first of Britain’s high explosive shells. Their big moment would come in the Great War ahead.
‘The Stevenson residence was found in ruins and there were evidences of a fearful slaughter
Gaunt, with a woman, Tulia, beside him. She was said to be a water carrier. The Red tops lost 10 men with 17 wounded. The Stevenson house had a German flag flying over it. When Gault captured it, the flag was ‘handed to the tāupou, or village belle…,’ Tulia.

The world came to be shocked at what the British and Americans were doing.
The strongest attack came from F***y V de G. Stevenson, widow of the novelist: ‘the exodus of the panic-stricken non-combatants rushing hither and thither; shells bursting everywhere; the cries of the bed ridden and the helplessly wounded burning alive in their blazing hours; women in the pangs of childbirth (for Nature takes no count of bombardments); mangled children crawling on the sands - the sea before them, the bush behind them; and we read that the woods also are shelled. Who is to be held accountable for those deeds that disgrace both England and America?’
Australian Catholic Cardinal Patrick Moran said what was happening was not warfare, but deliberate murder. America was bent on making the Pacific a new American lake. He looked upon this as very dangerous, not only to the natives of islands in the Pacific, but to the British Empire. It was clear to him Americans fermented the disturbances to suite their own ends, Moran said.
The Catholic journal les Missions Catholiques called it all a ‘cruel and ridiculous spectacle of two great powers, the United States and England, with all the resources of modern artillery, uniting their forces to give battle to some handfuls of natives. During two months their ships discharged more than a thousand shells into the villages of Upolu.’

The news of battle did not deter New Zealand: Prime Minister Richard John Seddon volunteered to send New Zealand soldiers to help the Anglo-Americans. Through April the attacks on villages continued: Papasē’ea, Utumau’u, Fagaloa and Fālifā.

DIVIDING SAMOA

Eventually the three powers decided Sāmoa began to believe it was not worth the coin and decided to send a trilateral commission out to effectively divide up the Pacific. No one in Sāmoa was asked their opinion. The commission arrived on a US cruiser. The American commissioner, Bartlett Tripp, wrote a moving book on it all. He told of when Mata’afa arrived at the cruiser for talks: ‘Mataafa was clad in a long white robe which came down to his feet and was partially gathered at the waist by some form of belt but flowing somewhat loosely about his large stalwart form, giving him, with his dignified mien and presence, something of the appearance of a Roman Senator. His head and feet were bare, and he wore no ornaments of any kind except a necklace of beads and a cross, the emblems of his church.’
The talks between Mata’afa and Malietoa are the stuff of movies; the very best of fa’a Sāmoa on display. Both sides agreed to surrender their weapons.
All Sāmoans were betrayed, of course.

The true death toll in the civil war was never known; no authority ever tried to establish it. There are monuments to dead white people killed in the conflict in several countries; none to the Sāmoans. A century later, the loss of so much life is unaccountable. The soldiers and sailors who died were just players in a vague colonial sideshow; no one in the colonial capitals were prepared to escalate the conflict into a full-scale war. In a lightweight Treaty of Westphalia, diplomats seriously considered tossing sovereigns, dollars or marks into the air to decide on the division.

Kaiser Wilhelm wanted ‘Upolu because German blood had been lost there.’ Pago Pago appealed to him. In the dealing, he offered London possession of Savai’i, Tonga and Niue. Germany would withdraw from Zanzibar or the English part of New Guinea or the Solomon Islands. German planters worried about giving up the Solomons as it was a labour source. It was bookkeeping on a global scale with bits of land in the Volta Triangle and the Yendi part of the Neutral Zone in West Africa. The Americans were determined to keep Tutuila, not least because of Pago Pago.

INTERNATIONAL CRIME ?

Malietoa believed the deal was a ‘crime against the law of nations, only equal to the dismemberment of Poland, Denmark, and France’. He blamed missionaries, missionaries ‘with their holy or unholy presence introduced the same religious differences and hatreds against each other as pertained at the hour in civilized States. The missionaries live in palatial, concrete houses, with all the luxuries their countries can afford, and charge us for Bibles and Prayer Books, which we understand are sent as free offerings.’
There are monuments to the dead Americans and British in Washington DC, Spokane, Washington, California and Mulinu’ū - just down the road from the old Fale Fono

By Michael Field

#HelpPromoteSamoa
#SamoaMoSamoa
#GodBlessSamoa
#BeautifulSamoa
#SamoaCulture
#SamoaHistory
#SekiSamoa
#HPS

Videos (show all)

Location

Category

Address

Apia
Other Education in Apia (show all)
EducationUSA Samoa EducationUSA Samoa
PO Box 3430, Apia, Samoa
Apia

The Official EducationUSA Samoa page. Helping Samoan Students study in the United States. Contact: [email protected] or 21631 x 2239

The Hub Pacific The Hub Pacific
Ground Floor, OSM HQ, Lotopa Road, Apia, Samoa
Apia

The Hub is a venue and virtual learning environment built to host small to medium-sized meetings and events in Samoa. We facilitate digital events, online learning and help incubate digital ideas into social impact solutions for a changing world.

2005 Church College of Western Samoa Senior Class 2005 Church College of Western Samoa Senior Class
Pesega Campus
Apia

This page is dedicated to the 2005 CCWS graduating class.

Supporting Premature and Sick Infants in Samoa's Neonatal Unit. Supporting Premature and Sick Infants in Samoa's Neonatal Unit.
Apia

BCPAP technology is now an integral part of care in the NICU unit within TTM Hospital Apia - Samoa.

St.Theresa Lepea 7am Sunday School St.Theresa Lepea 7am Sunday School
Lepea
Apia, 0685

Talofa lava and welcome to our SUNDAY SCHOOL page. We created this page as a means of getting in touch with our community and around the globe.

Samoa Meteorological Service Samoa Meteorological Service
Pen*sula, Mulinu'u
Apia, 685

Samoa Meteorological Service is formerly known as the "Apia Observatory", founded in 1902, housed as a Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE).

American Corner - Apia, Samoa American Corner - Apia, Samoa
Beach Road
Apia

The American Corner in Apia, is a partnership between the United States Embassy, Samoa and the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture.

Samoa Institute of Sport Samoa Institute of Sport
Lotopa
Apia

Samoa Institute of Sport supports local-based athletes achieve their sports, education and life goals. We are passionate about sports, youth and education.

Siumu Primary School Siumu Primary School
Siumu
Apia

Govt school from Level 1 to level 8.

Project Samoa Project Samoa
Apia, 1922

Project Samoa is proud to offer volunteer opportunities of the highest standard right here in Samoa -The heart of Polynesia.