Nasawa Automobile Mechanics

Nasawa Automobile Mechanics


Im a student from Nzuzu MZUZU Technical College im looking for a place as apprentice as Automobile Mechanics please if there is place inform me (Tendai Dishi)
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checking engine faults codes and clear MIL right only

The program lets you perform the following operations:
�Read diagnostic trouble codes, both generic and manufacturer-specific , and display their meaning (over 3000 generic code definitions in the database).
�Clear trouble codes and turn off the MIL ("Check Engine" light)
�Display current sensor data, including:
Engine RPM
Calculated Load Value
Coolant Temperature
Fuel System Status
Vehicle Speed
Short Term Fuel Trim
Long Term Fuel Trim
Intake Manifold Pressure
Timing Advance
Intake Air Temperature
Air Flow Rate
Absolute Throttle Position
Oxygen sensor voltages/associated short term fuel trims
Fuel System status
Fuel Pressure
Many others...
What does SAE mean in automobile
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a page for all automobile technicians who studied at Nasawa to share views and experiences

Operating as usual


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Humility is that quality which enables you, to
self assess, or even to accept criticism from
others. It is also that quality, which enables, you
to change course, if the direction you are taking
is not yielding the desired results.


I just bought a car but it's an automatic. It
drives in the day time and at night it won't
work. I put it in the D for day time and at
night I put it in N and it don't go anywhere
and about an hour ago a guy came up the
side of me wanting to race so I put my car in
R for race mode and I hit the car behind me.
I think it needs a new gearbox. Just
wondering how much it will cost. Please help


Congrats to all those who have made it in trade test november series amene zakanika osataya mtima zukani ndi kuyambanso ulendo osafooka..............mumakwana katatu inuyo


Automatic transmission
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An 8-gear automatic transmission
An automatic transmission (also called
automatic gearbox ) is a type of motor
vehicle transmission that can automatically
change gear ratios as the vehicle moves,
freeing the driver from having to shift gears
manually. Most automatic transmissions
have a defined set of gear ranges, often
with a parking pawl feature that locks the
output shaft of the transmission stroke face
to keep the vehicle from rolling either
forward or backward.
Similar but larger devices are also used for
heavy-duty commercial and industrial
vehicles and equipment. Some machines
with limited speed ranges or fixed engine
speeds, such as some forklifts and lawn
mowers , only use a torque converter to
provide a variable gearing of the engine to
the wheels.
Besides automatics, there are also other
types of automated transmissions such as a
continuously variable transmission (CVT) and
semi-automatic transmissions, that free the
driver from having to shift gears manually,
by using the transmission's computer to
change gear, if for example the driver were
redlining the engine. Despite superficial
similarity to other transmissions, automatic
transmissions differ significantly in internal
operation and driver's feel from semi-
automatics and CVTs. An automatic uses a
torque converter instead of a clutch to
manage the connection between the
transmission gearing and the engine. In
contrast, a CVT uses a belt or other torque
transmission scheme to allow an "infinite"
number of gear ratios instead of a fixed
number of gear ratios. A semi-automatic
retains a clutch like a manual transmission,
but controls the clutch through
electrohydraulic means .
A conventional manual transmission is
frequently the base equipment in a car,
with the option being an automated
transmission such as a conventional
automatic, semi-automatic, or CVT. The
ability to shift gears manually, often via
paddle shifters, can also be found on
certain automated transmissions
( manumatics such as Tiptronic), semi-
automatics (BMW SMG), and CVTs (such as
The first automatic transmission was
invented in 1921 by Alfred Horner Munro
of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and
patented under Canadian patent CA 235757
in 1923. (Munro obtained UK patent
GB215669 215,669 for his invention in
1924 and US patent 1,613,525 on 4 January
1927). Being a steam engineer, Munro
designed his device to use compressed air
rather than hydraulic fluid, and so it lacked
power and never found commercial
application. The first automatic
transmissions using hydraulic fluid were
developed by General Motors during the
1930s and introduced in the 1940
Oldsmobile as the "Hydra-Matic"
transmission. They were incorporated into
GM-built tanks during World War II and,
after the war, GM marketed them as being
Comparison with manual
Most cars sold in North America since the
1950s have been available with an
automatic transmission based on the fact
that the three major american car
manufactures had started using automatics.
[1] Conversely, in Europe a manual gearbox
is standard, with 20% of drivers opting for
an automatic transmission .[2] In some
Asian markets and in Australia, automatic
transmissions have become very popular
since the 1990s. [citation needed]
Vehicles equipped with automatic
transmissions are not as complex to drive.
Consequently, in some jurisdictions, drivers
who have passed their driving test in a
vehicle with an automatic transmission will
not be licensed to drive a manual
transmission vehicle. Conversely, a
manual license will allow the driver to drive
both manual and automatic vehicles.
Examples of driving license restrictions are
Croatia, Dominican Republic , Israel , United
Kingdom, Brazil, some states in Australia,
France , Portugal , Latvia, Lebanon ,
Lithuania, Ireland, Belgium , Germany, the
Netherlands , Sweden, Spain, Austria,
Norway , Hungary , South Africa, Trinidad
and Tobago, Belize, Japan, China, Hong
Kong , Macau , Mauritius , South Korea ,
Romania , Singapore, Philippines , United
Arab Emirates , Qatar, India , Estonia,
Finland, Saudi Arabia (in March 2012),
Switzerland , Slovenia, Republic of Ireland
and New Zealand (restricted licence
only). [ citation needed]
Automatic transmission modes
Conventionally, in order to select the
transmission operating mode, the driver
moves a selection lever located either on
the steering column or on the floor (as with
a manual on the floor, except that most
automatic selectors on the floor do not
move in the same type of pattern as a
manual lever; most automatic levers only
move vertically). In order to select modes,
or to manually select specific gear ratios,
the driver must push a button in (called the
shift lock button) or pull the handle (only
on column mounted shifters) out. Some
vehicles position selector buttons for each
mode on the cockpit instead, freeing up
space on the central console. Vehicles
conforming to US Government standards [3]
must have the modes ordered P-R-N-D-L
(left to right, top to bottom, or clockwise).
Prior to this, quadrant-selected automatic
transmissions often used a P-N-D-L-R
layout, or similar. Such a pattern led to a
number of deaths and injuries owing to
driver error causing unintentional gear
selection, as well as the danger of having a
selector (when worn) jump into Reverse
from Low gear during engine braking
Automatic transmissions have various
modes depending on the model and make of
the transmission. Some of the common
modes include:
Park (P)
This selection mechanically locks the
output shaft of transmission, restricting
the vehicle from moving in any direction.
A parking pawl prevents the transmission
from rotating, and therefore the vehicle
from moving, but the vehicle's driven
wheels may still rotate individually
(because of the differential ), as well as
the non-driven roadwheels may still
rotate freely. For this reason, it is
recommended to use the hand brake
(parking brake) because this actually
locks (in most cases) the wheels and
prevents them from moving. This also
increases the life of the transmission and
the park pin mechanism, because
parking on an incline with the
transmission in park without the parking
brake engaged will cause undue stress on
the parking pin. A hand brake should
also prevent the car from moving if a
worn selector accidentally drops into
reverse gear while idleing.
It should be noted that locking the
transmission output shaft with park does
not definitivly lock the driving wheels. If
one driving wheel has little vertical load
it will tend to slip, and will rotate in the
opposite direction to the more heavily
loaded non-slipping wheel. Only a
parking brake can be relied upon to
positively lock both of the parking-
braked wheels. (This is not the case with
certain 1950's Chrysler products that
carried their parking brake on the
transmission tailshaft, a defect
compounded by the provision of a
bumper jack.) It is typical of front-
wheel-drive vehicles for the parking
brake to lock the rear (non-driving)
wheels, so use of both the parking brake
and the transmission park lock provides
the greatest security against unintended
movement on slopes. Buses in Hong
Kong ( Kowloon Motor Bus) do not have
Parking mode ( P), instead, they are using
a single lever to prevent the whole bus
from moving.
A car should be allowed to come to a
complete stop before setting the
transmission into park to prevent
damage. Usually, Park ( P) is one of only
two selections in which the car's engine
can be started, the other being Neutral
(N) (Buses in Hong Kong mentioned
above has to be in Neutral mode ( N)
ONLY before the engine can be started).
In many modern cars and trucks, the
driver must have the foot brake applied
before the transmission can be taken out
of park. The Park position is omitted on
buses/coaches (and some road tractors)
with automatic transmission (on which a
parking pawl is not practical), which
must be placed in neutral with the air-
operated parking brakes set. Advice is
given in some owner's manuals [4] that if
the vehicle is parked on a steep slope
using the park lock only, it may not be
possible to release the park lock (move
the selector lever out of P). Another
vehicle may be required to push the
stuck vehicle uphill slightly to remove
the loading on the park lock pawl.
Most automobiles require P or N to be
set on the selector lever before the
engine can be started. This is typically
achieved via a normally open inhibitor
switch (sometimes called a "neutral
safety switch") wired in series with the
starter motor engagement circuit, which
is closed when P or N is selected,
completing the circuit (when the key is
turned to the start position), along with
any other safety devices which may be
present on newer cars (such as a foot-
brake application).
Reverse (R)
This engages reverse gear within the
transmission, permitting the vehicle to
be driven backward, and operates a
switch to turn on the white backup lights
for improved visibility (the switch may
also activate a beeper on delivery trucks
or other large vehicles to audibly warn
other drivers and nearby pedestrians of
the driver's reverse movement). To select
reverse in most transmissions, the driver
must come to a complete stop, depress
the shift lock button (or move the shift
lever toward the driver in a column
shifter, or move the shifter sideways
along a notched channel in a console
shifter) and select reverse. Not coming to
a complete stop may cause severe
damage to the
transmission[ citation needed ]. Some
modern automatic transmissions have a
safety mechanism in place, which does,
to some extent, prevent (but not
completely avoid) inadvertently putting
the car in reverse when the vehicle is
moving forward; such a mechanism may
consist of a solenoid-controlled physical
barrier on either side of the Reverse
position, electronically engaged by a
switch on the brake pedal. Therefore, the
brake pedal needs to be depressed in
order to allow the selection of reverse.
Some electronic transmissions prevent or
delay engagement of reverse gear
altogether while the car is moving.
Some shifters with a shift button allow
the driver to freely move the shifter
from R to N or D , or simply moving the
shifter to N or D without actually
depressing the button. However, the
driver cannot shift back to R without
depressing the shift button, to prevent
accidental shifting, especially at high
speeds, which could damage the
Neutral / No gear (N)
This disengages all gear trains within the
transmission, effectively disconnecting
the transmission from the driven wheels,
allowing the vehicle to coast freely under
its own weight and gain momentum
without the motive force from the
engine. Coasting in idle down long grades
(where law permits) should be avoided,
though, as the transmission's lubrication
pump is driven by non-idle engine RPMs.
Similarly, emergency towing with an
automatic transmission in neutral should
be a last resort. Manufacturers
understand emergency situations and list
limitations of towing a vehicle in neutral
(usually not to exceed 55 mph and 50
miles). This is the only other selection in
which the vehicle's engine may be
Drive (D)
This position allows the transmission to
engage the full range of available
forward gear ratios, allowing the vehicle
to move forward and accelerate through
its range of gears. The number of gear
ratios within the transmission depends
on the model, but they initially ranged
from three (predominant before the
1990s), to four and five speeds (losing
popularity to six-speed autos, though
still favored by Chrysler and Honda /
Acura) [citation needed]. Six-speed
automatic transmissions are probably
the most common offering in cars and
trucks from 2010 in carmakers as
Toyota , GM and Ford. However, seven-
speed automatics are becoming available
in some high-performance production
luxury cars (found in Mercedes 7G
gearbox, Infiniti ), as are eight-speed
autos in models from 2006 introduced
by Aisin Seiki Co. in Lexus, ZF and
Hyundai Motor Company. From 2013 are
available nine speeds transmissions
produced by ZF and Mercedes 9G .
Overdrive ('D', 'OD', or a boxed [D] or
the absence of an illuminated 'O/D
This mode is used in some transmissions
to allow early computer-controlled
transmissions to engage the automatic
overdrive. In these transmissions, Drive
(D) locks the automatic overdrive off,
but is identical otherwise. OD
(Overdrive) in these cars is engaged
under steady speeds or low acceleration
at approximately 35–45 mph (56–72 km/
h). Under hard acceleration or below
35–45 mph (56–72 km/h), the
transmission will automatically
downshift. Other vehicles with this
selector (example light trucks) will not
only disable up-shift to the overdrive
gear, but keep the remaining available
gears continuously engaged to the engine
for use of compression braking. Verify
the behavior of this switch and consider
the benefits of reduced friction brake
use when city driving where speeds
typically do not necessitate the overdrive
Third (3)
This mode limits the transmission to the
first three gear ratios, or sometimes
locks the transmission in third gear. This
can be used to climb or going down hill.
Some vehicles will automatically shift up
out of third gear in this mode if a
certain revolutions per minute (RPM)
range is reached in order to prevent
engine damage. This gear is also
recommended while towing a trailer.
Second (2 or S)
This mode limits the transmission to the
first two gear ratios, or locks the
transmission in second gear on Ford , Kia ,
and Honda models. This can be used to
drive in adverse conditions such as snow
and ice, as well as climbing or going
down hills in winter. It is usually
recommended to use second gear for
starting on snow and ice, and use of this
position enables this with an automatic
transmission. Some vehicles will
automatically shift up out of second gear
in this mode if a certain RPM range is
reached in order to prevent engine
Although traditionally considered second
gear, there are other names used.
Chrysler models with a three-speed
automatic since the late 1980s have
called this gear 3 while using the
traditional names for Drive and Low.
Oldsmobile has called second gear as the
'Super' range — which was first used on
their 4-speed Hydramatic transmissions,
although the use of this term continued
until the early 1980s when GM's Turbo
Hydramatic automatic transmissions
were standardized by all of their
divisions years after the 4-speed
Hydramatic was discontinued.
First (1 or L [Low])
This mode locks the transmission in first
gear only. In older vehicles, it will not
change to any other gear range. Some
vehicles will automatically shift up out of
first gear in this mode if a certain RPM
range is reached in order to prevent
engine damage. This, like second, can be
used during the winter season, for
towing, or for downhill driving to
increase the engine braking effect.
As well as the above modes there are also
other modes, dependent on the
manufacturer and model. Some examples
In Hondas and Acuras equipped with
five-speed automatic transmissions, this
mode is used commonly for highway use
(as stated in the manual), and uses all
five forward gears.
This mode is also found in Honda and
Acura four or five-speed automatics, and
only uses the first four gear ratios.
According to the manual, it is used for
stop-and-go traffic, such as city driving.
D3 or 3
This mode is found in Honda, Acura,
Volkswagen and Pontiac four-speed
automatics and only uses the first three
gear ratios. According to the manual, it
is used for stop-and-go traffic, such as
city driving.
D2 and D1
These modes are found on older Ford
transmissions (C6, etc.). In D1, all three
gears are used, whereas in D2 the car
starts in second gear and upshifts to
S or Sport
This is commonly described as Sport
mode. It operates in an identical manner
as "D" mode, except that the upshifts
change much higher up the engine's rev
range. This has the effect on maximising
all the available engine output, and
therefore enhances the performance of
the vehicle, particularly during
acceleration. This mode will also
downchange much higher up the rev
range compared to "D" mode,
maximising the effects of engine braking .
This mode will have a detrimental effect
on fuel economy. Hyundai has a Norm/
Power switch next to the gearshift for
this purpose on the Tiburon.
Some early GMs equipped with HYDRA-
MATIC transmissions used (S) to indicate
Second gear, being the same as the 2
position on a Chrysler, shifting between
only first and second gears. This would have
been recommended for use on steep grades,
or slippery roads like dirt, or ice, and
limited to speeds under 40 mph. (L) was
used in some early GMs to indicate (L)ow
gear, being the same as the 2 position on a
Chrysler, locking the transmission into first
gear. This would have been recommended
for use on steep grades, or slippery roads
like dirt, or ice, and limited to speeds under
15 mph.
+ −, and M
This is for the Manual mode selection of
gears in certain automatics, such as
Porsche 's Tiptronic and Honda 's
StepTronic. The M feature can also be
found in Chrysler and General Motors
products such as the Dodge Magnum,
Journey, and Pontiac G6, Mazda products
such as the Mazda 3 , Mazda6 , and the
CX-7 , as well as Toyota's Camry, Corolla,
Fortuner, Previa and Innova. Mitsubishi
and some Audi models ( Audi TT),
meanwhile do not have the M, and
instead have the + and -, which is
separated from the rest of the shift
modes; the same is true for some
Peugeot products like Peugeot 206.
Meanwhile, the driver can shift up and
down at will by toggling the (console
mounted) shift lever similar to a semi-
automatic transmission. This mode may
be engaged either through a selector/
position or by actually changing the
gears (e.g., tipping the gear-down
paddles mounted near the driver's
fingers on the steering wheel).
Winter (W)
In some Volvo, Mercedes-Benz , BMW and
General Motors Europe models, a winter
mode can be engaged so that second
gear is selected instead of first when
pulling away from stationary, to reduce
the likelihood of loss of traction due to
wheel spin on snow or ice. On GM cars,
this was D2 in the 1950s, and is Second
Gear Start after 1990. On Ford, Kia, and
Honda automatics, this feature can be
accessed by moving the gear selector to
2 to start, then taking your foot off the
accelerator while selecting D once the
car is moving.
Brake (B)
A mode selectable on some Toyota
models. In non-hybrid cars, this mode
lets the engine do compression braking,
also known as engine braking, typically
when encountering a steep downhill.
Instead of engaging the brakes, the
engine in a non-hybrid car switches to a
lower gear and slows down the spinning
tires. The engine holds the car back,
instead of the brakes slowing it down.
GM called this "HR" ("hill retarder") and
"GR" ("grade retarder") in the 1950s.
For hybrid cars, this mode converts the
electric motor into a generator for the
battery ( Regenerative Braking). It is not
the same as downshifting in a non-
hybrid car, but it has the same effect in
slowing the car without using the brakes.
Hydraulic automatic
The predominant form of automatic
transmission is hydraulically operated; using
a fluid coupling or torque converter, and a
set of planetary gearsets to provide a range
of gear ratios.
Parts and operation
A hydraulic automatic transmission consists
of the following parts:
Torque converter: A type of fluid
coupling, hydraulically connecting the
engine to the transmission. It takes the
place of a mechanical clutch, allowing the
transmission to stay in gear and the engine
to remain running while the vehicle is
stationary, without stalling. A torque
converter differs from a fluid coupling, in
that it provides a variable amount of torque
multiplication at low engine speeds,
increasing breakaway acceleration. This is
accomplished with a third member in the
coupling assembly known as the stator , and
by altering the shapes of the vanes inside
the coupling in such a way as to curve the
fluid's path into the stator. The stator
captures the kinetic energy of the
transmission fluid, in effect using the
leftover force of it to enhance torque
Pump: Not to be confused with the
impeller inside the torque converter, the
pump is typically a gear pump mounted
between the torque converter and the
planetary gearset. It draws transmission
fluid from a sump and pressurizes it, which
is needed for transmission components to
operate. The input for the pump is
connected to the torque converter housing,
which in turn is bolted to the engine's
flywheel, so the pump provides pressure
whenever the engine is running and there is
enough transmission fluid. Early automatic
transmissions also had a rear pump,
allowing push-starting.
Planetary gearset: A compound epicyclic
planetary gearset, whose bands and clutches
are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled
by the valve body, providing two or more
gear ratios. (Not part of some
manufacturers transmissions during some
eras, Honda being but one).
Clutches and bands: to effect gear
changes, one of two types of clutches or
bands are used to hold a particular member
of the planetary gearset motionless, while
allowing another member to rotate, thereby
transmitting torque and producing gear
reductions or overdrive ratios. These
clutches are actuated by the valve body
(see below), their sequence controlled by
the transmission's internal programming.
Principally, a type of device known as a
sprag or roller clutch is used for routine
upshifts/downshifts. Operating much as a
ratchet, it transmits torque only in one
direction, free-wheeling or "overrunning" in
the other. The advantage of this type of
clutch is that it eliminates the sensitivity of
timing a simultaneous clutch release/apply
on two planetaries, simply "taking up" the
drivetrain load when actuated, and releasing
automatically when the next gear's sprag
clutch assumes the torque transfer. The
bands come into play for manually selected
gears, such as low range or reverse, and
operate on the planetary drum's
circumference. Bands are not applied when
drive/overdrive range is selected, the
torque being transmitted by the sprag
clutches instead. Bands are used for
braking; the GM Turbo-Hydramatics
incorporated this. [citation needed].
Valve body : hydraulic control center that
receives pressurized fluid from the main
pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque
converter. The pressure coming from this
pump is regulated and used to run a
network of spring-loaded valves, check balls
and servo pistons. The valves use the pump
pressure and the pressure from a
centrifugal governor on the output side (as
well as hydraulic signals from the range
selector valves and the throttle valve or
modulator) to control which ratio is
selected on the gearset; as the vehicle and
engine change speed, the difference
between the pressures changes, causing
different sets of valves to open and close.
The hydraulic pressure controlled by these
valves drives the various clutch and brake
band actuators, thereby controlling the
operation of the planetary gearset to select
the optimum gear ratio for the current
operating conditions. However, in many
modern automatic transmissions, the valves
are controlled by electro-mechanical servos
which are controlled by the electronic
engine control unit (ECU) or a separate
transmission control unit (TCU, also known
as transmission control module (TCM).
Hydraulic & lubricating oil: called
automatic transmission fluid (ATF), this
component of the transmission provides
lubrication, corrosion prevention, and a
hydraulic medium to convey mechanical
power (for the operation of the
transmission). Primarily made from refined
petroleum, and processed to provide
properties that promote smooth power
transmission and increase service life, the
ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic
transmission that needs routine service as
the vehicle ages.
The multitude of parts, along with the
complex design of the valve body, originally
made hydraulic automatic transmissions
much more complicated (and expensive) to
build and repair than manual transmissions.
In most cars (except US family, luxury,
sport-utility vehicle, and minivan models)
they have usually been extra-cost options
for this reason. Mass manufacturing and
decades of improvement have reduced this
cost gap.
Energy efficiency
Hydraulic automatic transmissions are
almost always less energy efficient than
manual transmissions due mainly to viscous
and pumping losses, both in the torque
converter and the hydraulic actuators. A
relatively small amount of energy is
required to pressurize the hydraulic control
system, which uses fluid pressure to
determine the correct shifting patterns and
operate the various automatic clutch
Manual transmissions use a mechanical
clutch to transmit torque, rather than a
torque converter, thus avoiding the primary
source of loss in an automatic transmission.
Manual transmissions also avoid the power
requirement of the hydraulic control
system, by relying on the human muscle
power of the vehicle operator to disengage
the clutch and actuate the gear levers, and
the mental power of the operator to make
appropriate gear ratio selections. Thus the
manual transmission requires very little
engine power to function, with the main
power consumption due to drag from the
gear train being immersed in the lubricating
oil of the gearbox.
The on-road acceleration of an automatic
transmission can occasionally exceed that of
an otherwise identical vehicle equipped with
a manual transmission in turbocharged
diesel applications. Turbo-boost is normally
lost between gear changes in a manual
whereas in an automatic the accelerator
pedal can remain fully depressed. This
however is still largely dependent upon the
number and optimal spacing of gear ratios
for each unit, and whether or not the
elimination of spooldown/accelerator lift off
represent a significant enough gain to
counter the slightly higher power
consumption of the automatic transmission






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Offering nursery and junior primary school education, laying a good foundation in reading and writing to your kids.

College of social and Technical Science College of social and Technical Science
Zomba, +265

We offer Social.and Technical.programmes; at alffordable fees.Entry qualification for social.programs is full MSCE and Techinical trades is Minmum of Junior certificate. JULY 2020 INTAKE enrolment in

E-Learning ,Chancellor College E-Learning ,Chancellor College
Chancellor College
Zomba, PO BOX 280

Pan African E-Network Project

Chanco crew coaching school Chanco crew coaching school

this page was set to help those wishing to be enrolled into universities get relevant information to successfuly pass the university entrace examination